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Perspectives on Labour and Income

November 2008 issue

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Bridge employment

Abstract: Retirement is a process rather than a discrete event. Many older workers who start receiving a pension stay in the labour market in some capacity for roughly two to three years before they completely cease employment. And many who quit paid work at one point subsequently return to the labour market, especially in the first year after leaving their career job. For a substantial proportion of older workers, this 'bridge employment' appears to be a choice rather than a necessity.

Rural commuting

Abstract: Commuting is, to a large extent, an urban phenomenon. Close to 80% of commuting takes place between municipalities within larger urban centres. But commuting patterns are becoming increasingly complex and rural commuting is more complex than commonly believed. For persons in rural and small-town areas, rural-to-rural commuting is as large as rural-to-urban commuting. Moreover, rural jobs are more than twice as reliant on in-commuting rural workers as they are on in-commuting urban workers.

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