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Section 1 - Introduction and definitions: Region or country of birth

A number of articles have investigated some of the associations between immigrants' origins and their labour market outcomes, particularly for immigrants to Canada. For example, some studies point to the successes of American and European immigrants in Canada's labour market, especially established immigrants, who have been in Canada for 10 years or more, while immigrants from other regions who have landed more recently struggle in this market. [Read more]

Section 2 - Immigrant labour market outcomes, by region of birth

In 2006, many very recent immigrants in the core working-age group (aged 25 to 54) had experienced some difficulties in the labour market, compared with the Canadian born, regardless of their region of birth. Only those born in Southeast Asia had unemployment rates, employment rates and participation rates that were more or less on par with the Canadian-born population of core working age. In fact, immigrants born in Southeast Asia, particularly those from the Philippines, had the strongest labour market performance of all immigrants to Canada in 2006, regardless of when they landed in the country. [Read more]

Section 3 - Immigrant labour market outcomes by region of birth and sex

The 2006 unemployment rate of very recent immigrant men was almost double that of Canadian-born men, and their participation and employment rates were lower. For both recent and established immigrant men, their labour market outcomes were no different from that of the Canadian born. [Read more]

Section 4 - Immigrant labour market outcomes, by region of birth and selected provinces

Because the vast majority of immigrants settle in Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec, the following will focus on these provinces where Labour Force Survey sample sizes permit analysis by region of birth. Data on the three largest census metropolitan areas—Toronto, Vancouver and Montréal—are not presented here because of the labour market outcomes in these areas are very similar to those of their respective province. [Read more]

Section 5 - Immigrant labour market outcomes of youth and older Canadians, by region of birth

About two-thirds (68.5%) of youth born in Canada were in the labour market in 2006, and their unemployment rate was 11.2%. Labour market outcomes for immigrant youth, particularly those who are very recent and recent immigrants, were generally weaker than those of the Canadian born. The labour market results for more recent immigrant youth paralleled their higher levels of school attendance— that is, they were more likely to be attending school, and those attending school were participating less in the labour market. [Read more]


The main regions and countries of birth for immigrants to Canada of core working age have changed over the past few decades. The majority of very recent and recent immigrants of core working age were born in Asia, followed by Europe, Africa and Latin America. About 40% of established immigrants in this age group were born in Asia, followed by 33% born in Europe and 15% born in Latin America. [Read more]