Appendix I: Glossary
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Business entity which is owned from 10% to 100% by another business entity. Depending on the level of ownership, affiliates are classified as associates or subsidiaries or branches.
Business entity which is owned from 10% to 50% by another business entity.
Balance of payments (BOP)
A statistical statement that systematically summarizes, for a specific time period, the economic transactions of a country with the rest of the world.
Bonds, debentures, notes
These are debt securities issued by borrowers to finance their operations. They are sold to investors with the promise that they will be repaid with interest by the end of a specific period. Bonds, debentures and notes can be part of direct or portfolio investment in the balance of payments and international investment position, depending on the relationship between the issuer and the holder.
A valuation method for assets and liabilities based on the value recorded in the books of the holder of the asset or the issuer of the liability. Book value is used to value both Canadian financial assets and Canadian financial liabilities in the international investment position.
Business entity that is unincorporated and is owned by another business entity.
Canadian financial assets
Regrouping of all Canadian financial claims on non-residents in the financial account of the balance of payments and in the international investment position. Financial assets are further classified to direct, portfolio and other investment.
Canadian financial liabilities
Regrouping of all non-resident financial claims on Canadian residents in the financial account of the balance of payments and in the international investment position. Canadian financial liabilities are further classified to direct, portfolio and other investment.
Centre of economic interest
This is the basis for defining residency of transactors for the balance of payments. The BOP measures transactions between residents and non-residents. A person or business is said to be a resident of a country if it has a centre of economic activity as evidenced by the location of a persons principal residence or where they produce, invest and earn revenues.
Change in ownership
A change in ownership occurs when an asset has been received or a service / income is provided. Generally it is deemed to have occurred when the two parties (resident and non-resident) record the transaction in their respective books or accounts.
Corporations Returns Act (CRA)
The CRA is administered by the Chief Statistician of Canada under the authority of the Minister of Industry. The purpose of the Act is to collect financial and ownership information on corporations conducting business in Canada and to use this information to evaluate the extent and effect of non-resident control on the Canadian economy. An annual report must be submitted to Parliament summarizing this information. The CRA was formerly known as the Corporations and Labour Unions Returns Act.
Financial claim that refers to lending of funds by a creditor (lender) to a debtor (borrower). Debt comprises securities (generally marketable) and other debt instruments (generally not marketable). Debt can be part of direct, portfolio or other investment depending upon the relationship between the issuer and the holder.
Debtor / creditor principle
There are two principles that may serve as the basis for geographic allocation of direct investment financial flows: the debtor/creditor principle and the transactor principle. Under the debtor/creditor principle, transactions resulting from changes in financial claims of the compiling economy are allocated to the country or residence of the non-resident debtor, and transactions resulting in changes in financial liabilities are allocated to the country of residence of the non-resident creditor, even if the amounts are paid to or received from a different country (See also the entry for the transactor principle.)
Financial claims including bank deposits, deposit notes, certificates of deposits and all other claims reflecting evidence of deposits, including currency. Largely associated with Canadian banks, deposits are part of other investment in the balance of payments and international investment position.
Functional classification in the financial account of the balance of payments and in the international investment position which refers to an investment of a resident entity in one country obtaining a lasting interest in an enterprise resident in another country. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise and a significant degree of influence by the investor on the management of the enterprise.
Direct investment enterprise
An incorporated or unincorporated enterprise in which a direct investor, who is resident in another country, owns 10% or more of the ordinary shares or voting power (for an incorporated enterprise) or the equivalent (for an unincorporated enterprise). A direct investment enterprise is made up of related entities which can be in the form of associates, subsidiaries and branches.
Earnings on current activities distributed to equity holders of incorporated private enterprises, cooperatives and public corporations. This income item is recorded in the current account under portfolio investment or direct investment.
Equities (stocks or shares)
Equities comprise common and preferred shares, which represent a share in the ownership of the company. In addition, the following are also considered as equities: depository receipts, most units of mutual funds, income trusts and warrants. Equities can be part of portfolio investment or direct investment in the balance of payments or international investment position depending upon the relationship of the issuer and the holder.
Exchange rate effect
The exchange rate effect is the change in valuation of assets and liabilities in the international investment position, from one period to another due to changes in the exchange rate. Financial instruments denominated in foreign currencies are converted to Canadian dollars at the end of each reference period based on the applicable exchange rates.
A principal account of the balance of payments that records transactions in financial instruments which represents Canada's financing and investing activities with the rest of the world. Transactions are presented under three functional classes: direct, portfolio and other investment.
Financial derivatives are financial instruments that are linked to a specific financial instrument or indicator or commodity, and through which specific financial risks can be traded in financial markets in their own right. Their value derives from the price of the underlying item (i.e. the reference price) and, unlike debt instruments, no principal amount is advanced to be repaid and no investment income accrues. Examples are futures, forwards, options, warrants and swaps.
Financial instruments encompass securities (generally marketable) and other financial instruments (generally non-marketable). Financial instruments can be part of direct, portfolio or other investment in the balance of payments or international investment position depending upon the instrument and the relationship between the issuer and the holder.
Fully consolidated basis
The basis of reporting for Canada's balance of payments and international investment position. Entities are surveyed for their inward and outward direct investment data on a fully consolidated basis. As such, survey data, as a matter of principle, cover all directly and indirectly owned subsidiaries, associates and branches.
In Canada's balance of payments and international investment position, foreign countries are grouped by six regions: United States, United Kingdom, Other European Union (EU), Japan, Other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Other Countries (inclusive of international institutions).
Income trust units
Unit holders in an income trust receive regular cash distributions from an entity created to pay out the cash flow generated by a business. Income trust units are treated as equities in Canada's balance of payments.
Organizations that typically buy and sell securities in very large quantities. Institutional investors face less protective regulations because it is assumed that they are more knowledgeable and better able to protect themselves. Major Canadian institutional investors are pension funds, mutual, segregated and pooled funds as well as the general funds of insurance companies.
Interest is the amount that the debtor owes or pays to the creditor over a given period of time without reducing the amount of principal outstanding, under the terms of the financial instrument agreed between them.
International investment position (IIP)
The IIP is a country's balance sheet of the stock of financial assets and liabilities with the rest of the world. Together with the balance of payments transactions, the IIP constitutes a country's set of international accounts.
The issuing sector of a financial instrument refers to the classification of the issuer of a security. In Canada's balance of payments / international investment position, Canadian issuers are classified to one of the following: Government of Canada direct, federal enterprises, provincial direct, provincial enterprises, municipal direct, municipal enterprises or corporations. Foreign issuers are classified to governments, international organizations or other.
Financial claims that refer to direct lending of funds by creditors (lenders) to debtors (borrowers) through arrangements in which the lenders may or not receive a negotiable document or instrument. Loans are treated as other investment in the balance of payments / international investment position.
Market value is an alternative method of valuation for international investment position statistics. Market values for stocks of assets and liabilities reflect the prices in effect at the time to which the balance sheet relates.
Date at which time a security (such as a bond) is redeemable.
The maturity value of a security is the amount the issuer will pay the holder of a security at the date of redemption of the security. It is often referred to as par value, face value or redemption value.
This is an official international reserves asset item in the other investment category. It refers to gold owned by monetary authorities and is held as a financial asset. Transactions in the BOP are recorded only when monetary gold is transacted between monetary authorities in different countries or between monetary authorities and the IMF.
Monetization and demonetization of gold
Monetization refers to the acquisition by the monetary authorities of commodity gold to increase the stock of monetary gold. Demonetization refers to the disposal by the monetary authorities of monetary gold for non-monetary purposes. While these acquisitions or sales will increase or decrease a country's official reserve assets, the transactions are not recorded in the BOP under reserve assets. However, when a country's monetary authorities buy or sell gold with the private sector of a foreign country, then those transactions will be recorded in both countries trade statistics.
Money market securities
These are marketable debt securities with an original term to maturity of one year or less. Included are instruments such as treasury bills, commercial paper, finance company paper, bankers' acceptances, bearer demand notes of banks and other short-term paper. Money market securities are part of portfolio investment in the balance of payments / international investment position.
A diversified portfolio of securities invested on behalf of a group of investors and professionally managed. Individual investors own a percentage of the value of the fund represented by the number of units they purchased and thus share in any gains or losses of the fund. Depending on the objectives of a fund, its assets can include equity, debt or other financial instruments.
Net international investment position
The net international investment position is the stock of external assets minus the stock of external liabilities. The net position shows the value of non-resident assets owned by a country in relation to the liabilities it owes to non-residents.
Under trade-in-goods in the current account, non-monetary gold is treated like any other commodity. That is, it is recorded in a country's imports and exports. Gold bought and sold between different countries' monetary authorities is recorded in the financial account under reserve assets.
A person or business is said to be a non-resident of a country if they have a centre of economic activity that is outside the country. See the definition of resident.
Other assets / Other liabilities
Other assets and other liabilities are classes of the other investment functional category in the balance of payments / international investment position. They include claims that are not loans or deposits.
Functional classification in the financial account of the balance of payments and in the international investment position that covers loans, deposits, reserves (assets only) and other assets / other liabilities.
Participating preferred share
A type of preferred share where the investor has some entitlement to a share in the profits, or a share of any surplus on dissolution of the issuer. Participating preferred shares are treated as equities in Canada's balance of payments.
Functional classification of the financial account and the international investment position which refers to an investment of a resident entity in one country into equity and debt securities of another country undertaken for the sake of investment income or capital gains. Unlike direct investors, portfolio investors have no significant influence on the operation or management of the enterprises in which they invest.
The cumulative total of annual earnings retained by a company after payment of all expenses and dividends.
Repurchase agreements (Repos)
A repurchase agreement is an arrangement involving the sale of securities at a specified price with a commitment to repurchase them at a fixed price at a future date. They are usually very short-term (overnight or one day) but can range up to a month or more. Repos are treated as loans backed by securities and classified under other investment in the balance of payments and international investment position.
Claims on non-residents that are readily available to and controlled by monetary authorities. They are used for the conduct of a country's monetary policy. Reserves are part of other investment in the balance of payments / international investment position.
Reserve position in the fund
Reserve asset item that refers to the sum of the reserve tranche purchases that a member may draw upon and any indebtedness of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that is readily repayable to the member.
A person or business is said to be a resident of a country if they have a centre of economic activity as evidenced by the location of a person's principal residence and where they produce, invest and earn revenues.
Financial instruments that are marketable, such as publicly traded stocks, bonds, money market securities and other financial instruments. Securities are part of direct and portfolio investment in the balance of payments / international investment position depending upon the direct or portfolio relationship of the issuer and the holder.
Pooling of non-traded assets for the purpose of issuing standardized securities backed by those assets, which can then be traded like any other security.
Special drawing rights (SDRs)
Reserve asset item created by the IMF to supplement other reserve assets that are periodically allocated to IMF members in proportion to their respective quotas. Value of SDRs is determined by a weighted basket of currencies. Transactions in SDRs are recorded in the financial account.
Special purpose entities (SPEs)
These entities are usually established in countries other than those in which the parent companies are resident, and are engaged primarily in international transactions. SPEs are defined according to either their structure (e.g. holding company) or their purpose (e.g. sales and administration). In the balance of payments, these entities are treated as direct investment enterprises, assuming they meet the 10 percent ownership criterion.
Strip Bonds or Zero Coupon Bonds
Usually high quality federal or provincial government bonds originally issued in bearer form, where some or all of the interest coupons have been detached. The bond principal and any remaining coupons (the residue) then trade separately from the strip of detached coupons, both at substantial discount from par.
Business entity which has more than 50% of the ordinary shares or voting power (for an incorporated enterprise) or the equivalent (for an unincorporated enterprise) owned by another business entity.
Term to maturity
Fixed period of time corresponding to the lifetime of a security. The term to maturity corresponds to the period of time between the date at which the security is issued (original term to maturity) or is outstanding (remaining term to maturity) and the date at which the security is redeemable (maturity date).
Economic flow that reflects the creation, transformation, exchange, transfer or elimination of economic value. Transactions that involve change of ownership of goods, services, investment income or financial claims are recorded in the balance of payments. Balance of payments transactions and valuation changes modify the international investment position from one period to the next.
Value that refers in a broad sense to the actual prices (or market prices) agreed upon by transactors and is generally used to record transactions in the balance of payments. In the absence of a market price, for example when there is a direct exchange of goods, rather than money, for other goods, substitute measures have to be estimated usually by analogy with known market prices of equivalent transactions.
There are two principles that may serve as the basis for geographic allocation of financial flows: the debtor/creditor principle and the transactor principle. Under the transactor principle, transactions resulting from changes in the claims and liabilities are allocated to the country of residence of the non-resident party to the transaction (the transactor), even if this is not the country of residence of the direct investment enterprise or direct investor. (See also the entry for the debtor/creditor principle.)
The determination of asset, liability and transaction values. Different methods of valuation include transaction value, market price, issue price, book value, market value, maturity value, etc. and they often reflect applicable accounting principles, legal restrictions and tradition, as well as theoretical considerations.
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