Section XVI - Machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical equipment; parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles

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Chapter 84 - Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof
Chapter 85 - Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles


1. This Section does not cover:

  • (a) Transmission or conveyor belts or belting, of plastics of Chapter 39, or of vulcanized rubber (heading 40.10), or other articles of a kind used in machinery or mechanical or electrical appliances or for other technical uses, of vulcanized rubber other than hard rubber (heading 40.16);
  • (b) Articles of leather or of composition leather (heading 42.05) or of furskin (heading 43.03), of a kind used in machinery or mechanical appliances or for other technical uses;
  • (c) Bobbins, spools, cops, cones, cores, reels or similar supports, of any material (for example, Chapter 39, 40, 44 or 48 or Section XV);
  • (d) Perforated cards for Jacquard or similar machines (for example, Chapter 39 or 48 or Section XV); (e) Transmission or conveyor belts or belting, of textile material (heading 59.10) or other articles of textile material for technical uses (heading 59.11);
  • (f) Precious or semi-precious stones (natural, synthetic or reconstructed) of headings 71.02 to 71.04, or articles wholly of such stones of heading 71.16, except unmounted worked sapphires and diamonds for styli (heading 85.22);
  • (g) Parts of general use, as defined in Note 2 to Section XV, of base metal (Section XV), or similar goods of plastics (Chapter 39);
  • (h) Drill pipe (heading 73.04);
  • (ij) Endless belts of metal wire or strip (Section XV);
  • (k) Articles of Chapter 82 or 83;
  • (l) Articles of Section XVII;
  • (m) Articles of Chapter 90;
  • (n) Clocks, watches or other articles of Chapter 91;
  • (o)  Interchangeable tools of heading 82.07 or brushes of a kind used as parts of machines (heading 96.03); similar interchangeable tools are to be classified according to the constitutent material of their working part (for example, in Chapter 40, 42, 43, 45 or 59 or heading 68.04 or 69.09);
  • (p) Articles of Chapter 95; or
  • (q) Typewriter or similar ribbons, whether or not on spools or in cartridges (classified according to their constituent material, or in heading 96.12 if inked or otherwise prepared for giving impressions).

2. Subject to Note 1 to this Section, Note 1 to Chapter 84 and to Note 1 to Chapter 85, parts of machines (not being parts of the articles of heading 84.84, 85.44, 85.45, 85.46 or 85.47) are to be classified according to the following rules:

  • (a) Parts which are goods included in any of the headings of Chapter 84 or 85 (other than headings 84.09, 84.31, 84.48, 84.66, 84.73, 84.87, 85.03, 85.22, 85.29, 85.38 and 85.48) are in all cases to be classified in their respective headings;
  • (b) Other parts, if suitable for use solely or principally with a particular kind of machine, or with a number of machines of the same heading (including a machine of heading 84.79 or 85.43) are to be classified with the machines of that kind or in heading 84.09, 84.31, 84.48, 84.66, 84.73, 85.03, 85.22, 85.29 or 85.38 as appropriate. However, parts which are equally suitable for use principally with the goods of headings 85.17 and 85.25 to 85.28 are to be classified in heading 85.17;
  • (c) All other parts are to be classified in heading 84.09, 84.31, 84.48, 84.66, 84.73, 85.03, 85.22, 85.29 or 85.38 as appropriate or, failing that, in heading 84.87 or 85.48.

3. Unless the context otherwise requires, composite machines consisting of two or more machines fitted together to form a whole and other machines designed for the purpose of performing two or more complementary or alternative functions are to be classified as if consisting only of that component or as being that machine which performs the principal function.

4. Where a machine (including a combination of machines) consists of individual components (whether separate or interconnected by piping, by transmission devices, by electric cables or by other devices) intended to contribute together to a clearly defined function covered by one of the headings in Chapter 84 or Chapter 85, then the whole falls to be classified in the heading appropriate to that function.

5. For the purposes of these Notes, the expression “machine” means any machine, machinery, plant, equipment, apparatus or appliance cited in the headings of Chapter 84 or 85.

Chapter 84 - Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof


1. This Chapter does not cover:

  • (a) Millstones, grindstones or other articles of Chapter 68;
  • (b) Machinery or appliances (for example, pumps) of ceramic material and ceramic parts of machinery or appliances of any material (Chapter 69);
  • (c) Laboratory glassware (heading 70.17); machinery, appliances or other articles for technical uses or parts thereof, of glass (heading 70.19 or 70.20);
  • (d) Articles of heading 73.21 or 73.22 or similar articles of other base metals (Chapters 74 to 76 or 78 to 81);
  • (e) Vacuum cleaners of heading 85.08;
  • (f) Electro-mechanical domestic appliances of heading 85.09; digital cameras of heading 85.25; or
  • (g) Hand-operated mechanical floor sweepers, not motorized (heading 96.03).

2. Subject to the operation of Note 3 to Section XVI and subject to Note 9 to this Chapter, a machine or appliance which answers to a description in one or more of the headings 84.01 to 84.24, or heading 84.86 and at the same time to a description in one or other of the headings 84.25 to 84.80 is to be classified under the appropriate heading of the former group or under heading 84.86, as the case may be, and not the latter group.

  • Heading 84.19 does not, however, cover:
  • (a) Germination plant, incubators or brooders (heading 84.36);
  • (b) Grain dampening machines (heading 84.37);
  • (c) Diffusing apparatus for sugar juice extraction (heading 84.38);
  • (d) Machinery for the heat-treatment of textile yarns, fabrics or made up textile articles (heading 84.51); or
  • (e) Machinery or plant, designed for mechanical operation, in which a change of temperature, even if necessary, is subsidiary.
  • Heading 84.22 does not cover:
  • (a) Sewing machines for closing bags or similar containers (heading 84.52); or
  • (b) Office machinery of heading 84.72.
  • Heading 84.24 does not cover:
  • (a) Ink-jet printing machines (heading 84.43); or
  • (b) Water-jet cutting machines (heading 84.56).

3. A machine-tool for working any material which answers to a description in heading 84.56 and at the same time to a description in heading 84.57, 84.58, 84.59, 84.60, 84.61, 84.64 or 84.65 is to be classified in heading 84.56.

4. Heading 84.57 applies only to machine-tools for working metal, other than lathes (including turning centres), which can carry out different types of machining operations either:

  • (a) by automatic tool change from a magazine or the like in conformity with a machining programme (machining centres),
  • (b) by the automatic use, simultaneously or sequentially, of different unit heads working on a fixed position workpiece (unit construction machines, single station), or
  • (c) by the automatic transfer of the workpiece to different unit heads (multi-station transfer machines).

5. (A) For the purposes of heading 84.71, the expression “automatic data processing machines” means machines capable of:

  • (i) Storing the processing program or programs and at least the data immediately necessary for the execution of the program;
  • (ii) Being freely programmed in accordance with the requirements of the user;
  • (iii) Performing arithmetical computations specified by the user; and
  • (iv) Executing, without human intervention, a processing program which requires them to modify their execution, by logical decision during the processing run.

(B) Automatic data processing machines may be in the form of systems consisting of a variable number of separate units.

(C) Subject to paragraphs (D) and (E) below, a unit is to be regarded as being part of an automatic data processing system if it meets all of the following conditions:

  • (i) It is of a kind solely or principally used in an automatic data processing system;
  • (ii) It is connectable to the central processing unit either directly or through one or more other units; and
  • (iii) It is able to accept or deliver data in a form (codes or signals) which can be used by the system.

Separately presented units of an automatic data processing machine are to be classified in heading 84.71.

However, keyboards, X-Y co-ordinate input devices and disk storage units which satisfy the conditions of paragraphs (C) (ii) and (C) (iii) above, are in all cases to be classified as units of heading 84.71.

(D) Heading 84.71 does not cover the following when presented separately, even if they meet all of the conditions set forth in Note 5 (C) above:

  • (i) Printers, copying machines, facsimile machines, whether or not combined;
  • (ii) Apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, including apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network (such as a local or wide area network);
  • (iii) Loudspeakers and microphones;
  • (iv) Television cameras, digital cameras and video camera recorders;
  • (v) Monitors and projectors, not incorporating television reception apparatus.

(E) Machines incorporating or working in conjunction with an automatic data processing machine and performing a specific function other than data processing are to be classified in the headings appropriate to their respective functions or, failing that, in residual headings.

6. Heading 84.82 applies, inter alia, to polished steel balls, the maximum and minimum diameters of which do not differ from the nominal diameter by more than 1% or by more than 0.05 mm, whichever is less.

Other steel balls are to be classified in heading 73.26.

7. A machine which is used for more than one purpose is, for the purposes of classification, to be treated as if its principal purpose were its sole purpose.

Subject to Note 2 to this Chapter and Note 3 to Section XVI, a machine the principal purpose of which is not described in any heading or for which no one purpose is the principal purpose is, unless the context otherwise requires, to be classified in heading 84.79. Heading 84.79 also covers machines for making rope or cable (for example, stranding, twisting or cabling machines) from metal wire, textile yarn or any other material or from a combination of such materials.

8. For the purposes of heading 84.70, the term “pocket-size” applies only to machines the dimensions of which do not exceed 170 mm x 100 mm x 45 mm.

9. (A) Notes 8 (a) and 8 (b) to Chapter 85 also apply with respect to the expressions “semiconductor devices” and “electronic integrated circuits”, respectively, as used in this Note and in heading 84.86. However, for the purposes of this Note and of heading 84.86, the expression “semiconductor devices” also covers photosensitive semiconductor devices and light emitting diodes.

(B) For the purposes of this Note and of heading 84.86, the expression “manufacture of flat panel displays” covers the fabrication of substrates into a flat panel. It does not cover the manufacture of glass or the assembly of printed circuit boards or other electronic components onto the flat panel. The expression “flat panel display” does not cover cathode-ray tube technology.

(C) Heading 84.86 also includes machines and apparatus solely or principally of a kind used for:

  • (i) the manufacture or repair of masks and reticles;
  • (ii) assembling semiconductor devices or electronic integrated circuits;
  • (iii) lifting, handling, loading or unloading of boules, wafers, semiconductor devices, electronic integrated circuits and flat panel displays.

(D) Subject to Note 1 to Section XVI and Note 1 to Chapter 84, machines and apparatus answering to the description in heading 84.86 are to be classified in that heading and in no other heading of the Nomenclature.

Subheading notes

1. For the purposes of subheading 8471.49, the term “systems” means automatic data processing machines whose units satisfy the conditions laid down in Note 5 (C) to Chapter 84 and which comprise at least a central processing unit, one input unit (for example, a keyboard or a scanner), and one output unit (for example, a visual display unit or a printer).

2. Subheading 8482.40 applies only to bearings with cylindrical rollers of a uniform diameter not exceeding 5 mm and having a length which is at least three times the diameter. The ends of the rollers may be rounded.

Chapter 85 - Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles


1. This Chapter does not cover:

  • (a) Electrically warmed blankets, bed pads, foot-muffs or the like; electrically warmed clothing, footwear or ear pads or other electrically warmed articles worn on or about the person;
  • (b) Articles of glass of heading 70.11;
  • (c) Machines and apparatus of heading 84.86;
  • (d) Vacuum apparatus of a kind used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences (heading 90.18); or
  • (e) Electrically heated furniture of Chapter 94.

2. Headings 85.01 to 85.04 do not apply to goods described in heading 85.11, 85.12, 85.40, 85.41 or 85.42.

However, metal tank mercury arc rectifiers remain classified in heading 85.04.

3. Heading 85.09 covers only the following electro-mechanical machines of the kind commonly used for domestic purposes:

  • (a) Floor polishers, food grinders and mixers, and fruit or vegetable juice extractors, of any weight;
  • (b) Other machines provided the weight of such machines does not exceed 20 kg.

The heading does not, however, apply to fans or ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters (heading 84.14), centrifugal clothes-dryers (heading 84.21), dish washing machines (heading 84.22), household washing machines (heading 84.50), roller or other ironing machines (heading 84.20 or 84.51), sewing machines (heading 84.52), electric scissors (heading 84.67) or to electro-thermic appliances (heading 85.16).

4. For the purposes of heading 85.23:

  • (a) “Solid-state non-volatile storage devices” (for example, “flash memory cards” or “flash electronic storage cards”) are storage devices with a connecting socket, comprising in the same housing one or more flash memories (for example, “FLASH E²PROM”) in the form of integrated circuits mounted on a printed circuit board. They may include a controller in the form of an integrated circuit and discrete passive components, such as capacitors and resistors;
  • (b) The term “smart cards” means cards which have embedded in them one or more electronic integrated circuits (a microprocessor, random access memory (RAM) or read-only memory (ROM)) in the form of chips. These cards may contain contacts, a magnetic stripe or an embedded antenna but do not contain any other active or passive circuits elements.

5. For the purposes of heading 85.34 “printed circuits” are circuits obtained by forming on an insulating base, by any printing process (for example, embossing, plating-up, etching) or by the “film circuit” technique, conductor elements, contacts or other printed components (for example, inductances, resistors, capacitors) alone or interconnected according to a pre-established pattern, other than elements which can produce, rectify, modulate or amplify an electrical signal (for example, semiconductor elements).

The expression “printed circuits” does not cover circuits combined with elements other than those obtained during the printing process, nor does it cover individual, discrete resistors, capacitors or inductances. Printed circuits may, however, be fitted with non-printed connecting elements.

Thin- or thick-film circuits comprising passive and active elements obtained during the same technological process are to be classified in heading 85.42.

6. For the purpose of heading 85.36, “connectors for optical fibres, optical fibre bundles or cables” means connectors that simply mechanically align optical fibres end to end in a digital line system.

They perform no other function, such as the amplification, regeneration or modification of a signal.

7. Heading 85.37 does not include cordless infrared devices for the remote control of television receivers or other electrical equipment (heading 85.43).

8. For the purposes of headings 85.41 and 85.42:

  • (a) “Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices” are semiconductor devices the operation of which depends on variations in resistivity on the application of an electric field;
  • (b) “Electronic integrated circuits” are:
    • (i) Monolithic integrated circuits in which the circuit elements (diodes, transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductances, etc.) are created in the mass (essentially) and on the surface of a semiconductor or compound semiconductor material (for example, doped silicon, gallium arsenide, silicon germanium, indium phosphide) and are inseparably associated;
    • (ii) Hybrid integrated circuits in which passive elements (resistors, capacitors, inductances, etc.), obtained by thin- or thick-film technology, and active elements (diodes, transistors, monolithic integrated circuits, etc.), obtained by semiconductor technology, are combined to all intents and purposes indivisibly, by interconnections or interconnecting cables, on a single insulating substrate (glass, ceramic, etc.). These circuits may also include discrete components;
    • (iii) Multichip integrated circuits consisting of two or more interconnected monolithic integrated circuits combined to all intents and purposes indivisibly, whether or not on one or more insulating substrates, with or without leadframes, but with no other active or passive circuits elements.

For the classification of the articles defined in this Note, headings 85.41 and 85.42 shall take precedence over any other heading in the Nomenclature, except in the case of heading 85.23, which might cover them by reference to, in particular, their function.

9. For the purposes of heading 85.48, “spent primary cells, spent primary batteries and spent electric accumulators” are those which are neither usable as such because of breakage, cutting-up, wear or other reasons, nor capable of being recharged.

Subheading note

1. Subheading 8527.12 covers only cassette-players with built-in amplifier, without built-in loudspeaker, capable of operating without an external source of electric power and the dimensions of which do not exceed 170 mm x 100 mm x 45 mm.

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