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Appendix A: Glossary

Accrued net income of farm operators from farm production: net income received by farm operators from farm production plus the undistributed portion of earnings arising out of the operations of the Canadian Wheat Board and the adjustment made to shift agricultural subsidies from a cash to an accrual basis.

Balance of payments / Customs basis: data for the compilation of merchandise trade are based on customs documents, which are processed and published by the International Trade Division of Statistics Canada. These data are on a customs basis. However, certain adjustments are made in terms of valuation, timing, and coverage to align data on a customs basis with balance of payments concepts and conventions as used within the framework of the National Accounts (that is, data on a balance of payments basis).

Basic prices: a basic price valuation includes the costs of production factors (labour and capital) and indirect taxes and subsidies on production factors. Income measures are estimates at basic prices or market prices.

Business bankruptcy: a business bankruptcy is chiefly attributable to liabilities incurred by a business, as a result of which the business is unable to meet its current payment obligations out of its cash flows or realizable assets. Business bankruptcies include proprietorships, partnerships and limited companies.

Capital consumption allowances: allowances for the using up of capital in the productive process. They are calculated for business and government fixed assets as well as housing. They also include miscellaneous valuation adjustments bringing business accounting records into conformity with national accounts definitions, such as the addition of claims paid by insurance companies to compensate for fire and other losses.

Capital transfers: transfers in cash or in kind, out of the wealth of the donor (inheritances and migrants’ funds, transfer of ownership of an asset or cancellation of a liability), or transfers which the recipient is expected to use towards the acquisition of an asset. Capital transfers have no effect on the saving of the donor or recipient.

Census agglomeration (CA): a census agglomeration (CA) is a large urban area (known as the urban core) together with adjacent urban and rural areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. A CA has an urban core population of at least 10,000, based on the previous census. However, if the population of the urban core of a CA declines below 10,000, the CA is retired. Once a CA attains an urban core population of at least 100,000, based on the previous census, it becomes a CMA. CAs that have urban cores of at least 50,000, based on the previous census, are subdivided into census tracts. Census tracts are maintained for CAs even if the population of the urban core subsequently falls below 50,000.

There are 111 CAs across Canada, based on the 2006 Census.

Census metropolitan area (CMA): the general concept of a census metropolitan area (CMA) is one of a very large urban area, together with adjacent urban and rural areas which have a high degree of economic and social integration with that urban area.

A Census Metropolitan Area is delineated around an urban area (called the urbanized core and having a population of at least 100,000(based on the previous census). Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained in the program even if its population subsequently declines.

CMAs are comprised of one or more census subdivisions (CSDs) which meet at least one of the following criteria:

  1. the CSD falls completely or partly inside the urbanized core;
  2. at least 50% of the employed labour force living in the CSD works in the urbanized core; or
  3. at least 25% of the employed labour force working in the CSD lives in the urbanized core (2001 Census Dictionary, catalogue no. 92-378-X, page 214).

There are 33 CMAs in Canada, based on the 2006 Census.

Chain Fisher volume index: a measure of change in volume from period to period. It is calculated as the geometric mean of a chain Paasche volume index and a chain Laspeyres volume index. In other words, it is an average of two distinct measures of change in volume: one calculated as if prices were constant in the first of two adjacent periods (Laspeyres volume) and the other calculated as if prices were constant in the second of the two adjacent periods (Paasche volume).

Chained dollar: chained dollar series are calculated as the product of the chain-type quantity index and the current dollar value of the corresponding series, divided by 100. Because the formula for the chain-type quantity indexes uses weights of more than one period, the corresponding chained-dollar estimates are usually not additive.

Components of demographic growth: any of the classes of events generating population movement variations. Births, deaths, migration, marriages, divorces and new widowhoods are the components responsible for the variation since they alter either the total population or the age, sex and marital status distribution of the population.


  1. Building permit: this classification is one of buildings or structures for which a building permit was issued by a municipality. A building permit may be issued by municipalities for: construction of new buildings; alterations, additions or conversions, etc.
  2. Number of dwelling units: for “Residential construction”, consists of the number of self-contained dwelling units created.
  3. Value of residential construction: the value of building permits issued for new dwellings or for improvements.

Consumer credit: credit extended to persons for purchasing consumer goods and services.

Consumer goods: new goods acquired by households for their own consumption. Consumer goods are made up of three categories:

  1. Durable goods which can be used repeatedly or continuously for more than one year, such as motor vehicles and major appliances;
  2. Semi-durable goods which have an expected lifetime of one year or somewhat more, such as clothing, footwear and linens;
  3. Non-durable goods which can be used only once, such as food, gasoline, alcoholic beverages and tobacco. In practice, however, this category also includes goods of minor value which are used more than once, such as certain household supplies.

Consumer services: services consumed by households, such as rent (including the rent imputed on owner-occupied housing), transportation, education, medical care, child care, food and accommodation services as well as travel expenditures of Canadians abroad, less travel expenditures of foreigners in Canada. Also includes the current (operating) expenses of associations of individuals.

Corporation profits before taxes: the net earnings from economic activity of privately-held corporations, measured after deduction of capital consumption allowances.

Current prices: a valuation at current prices is expressed at the prices prevailing during the period being referred to. See Chain Fisher volume index.

Current transfers: transfers out of the income of the donor, reducing his saving and adding to that of the recipient.

Department store: defined as a retail outlet that sells the following lines of merchandise:

  1. Family clothing and apparel– at least six commodity lines comprising at least 20% of the total sales.
  2. Furniture, appliances and home furnishings– at least four commodity lines comprising at least 10% of the total sales.
  3. All other (miscellaneous)– at least three commodity lines comprising at least 10% of total sales. This category includes all commodities not shown above, such as: toiletries, cosmetics and drugs; photographic equipment and supplies; piece goods; notions and smallwares; jewellery; sporting goods and luggage; stationery, books and magazines; and food.

The sales of concessions located in department stores are regarded as part of the overall business of the department store outlet in which they are located. However, sales of an associated food department are included only if it is an integral part of the overall department store operation and is not identified to the public by a different name from that of the department store with which it is associated.

Direct selling: this Canadian industry comprises establishments, not classified to any other industry, primarily engaged in non-store retailing. These establishments use methods, such as door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration and temporary displaying of merchandise (stalls), to reach their customers and market their merchandise.

Direct taxes: current transfers to government from persons, unincorporated businesses, corporations and government business enterprises in the form of taxes on income from employment, property, holding gains or any other source. Direct taxes from persons are recorded on a cash basis, and those from corporations and government business enterprises, on an accrual basis.

Direct taxes from persons: income taxes, succession duties and estate taxes paid by persons and unincorporated businesses.

Earnings: See Wages and Salaries.

Emigrant: Canadian citizen or immigrant who has left Canada to establish a permanent residence in another country.

Employed: for Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey, the employed include all persons who, during the reference week,

  1. did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household; or
  2. had a job but were not at work due to illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, bad weather, labour dispute, vacation, or other reasons not specified above. Excluded from the employed labour force are persons on lay-off and persons whose job attachment is to a job that starts at a definite date in the future.

Employment income: for data based on tax returns, employment income is defined as wages, salaries, commissions from employment, training allowances, tips and gratuities, self-employment income (net income from business, profession, farming, fishing and commissions) and tax-exempt employment income earned on an Indian reserve (new in 1999).

Establishment: the establishment is the smallest business unit that functions as a separate operating entity and is capable of reporting employment, wages and salaries, and inputs and outputs necessary for the calculation of gross margin. The establishment can be a proprietorship or partnership, if unincorporated; or a branch, plant, division or corporation, if incorporated.

Exports and imports of services: services are categorized under four headings: travel, transportation, commercial services and government services.

  1. Travel covers all receipts and payments arising from travel of less than one year between Canada and other countries, and for travel of more than one year for educational or health purposes. Travelers of more than one year are otherwise treated as residents of the country to which they travel, except for diplomats and military personnel on postings abroad. Government representatives on missions abroad are always treated as residents of their home countries, and their living and other expenditures abroad are included in government services.
  2. Transportation services cover receipts and payments of persons and goods by air, water and land, together with supporting services for the various modes of transport.
  3. Commercial services include communications; construction; insurance and other financial services; computer and information services; royalties and licence fees; commissions; equipment rentals; management services; advertising; research and development; architectural services; engineering and technical services; miscellaneous services to business; audio visual services; and personal, cultural and recreational services. The data include with holding taxes paid.
  4. Government services cover international transactions arising from government activities (diplomatic, commercial and military) not covered elsewhere in the balance of payments. Receipts chiefly comprise expenditures in Canada by foreign governments. Payments consist mainly of expenditures abroad by the federal and provincial governments. In addition to current outlays, government services include capital expenditures for property acquisitions and construction.

Exports of goods and services: current receipts from exports of merchandise, travel of non-residents in Canada, freight and shipping on Canadian account, and other services rendered to non-residents.

Factor cost: a valuation reflecting the cost of the factors of production (labour and capital). It corresponds to the value remaining after the deduction from market prices of all applicable taxes and subsidies. See market prices.

Factors of production: productive agents which, when combined, create economic output. In broad terms there are two factors of production, labour and capital.


  1. Census family refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. “Children” in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present. (2006 Census dictionary, catalogue no. 92-566-X).
  2. Census family status refers to the classification of the population according to whether or not the persons are members of a census family and the status they have in the Census family.
  3. Census family structure refers to the classification of census families into married couples (with or without children of either or both spouses), common-law couples (with or without children of either or both partners), and lone-parent families by sex of parent. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. “Children” in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present. (2006 Census dictionary, catalogue no. 92-566-X).

Family persons refer to household members who belong to a census family. They, in turn, are further classified as follows:

  1. Spouses refer to persons of opposite sex who are legally married to each other and living in the same dwelling.
  2. Common-law partners are two persons of opposite sex or of the same sex who are not legally married to each other, but live together as a couple in the same dwelling.
  3. Lone parent refers to a mother or a father, with no spouse or common-law partner present, living in a dwelling with one or more children.

Children refer to blood, step- or adopted sons and daughters (regardless of age or marital status) who are living in the same dwelling as their parent(s), as well as grandchildren in households where there are no parents present. Sons and daughters who are living with their spouse or common-law partner, or with one or more of their own children, are not considered to be members of the census family of their parent(s), even if they are living in the same dwelling. In addition, those sons and daughters who do not live in the same dwelling as their parent(s) are not considered members of the census family of their parent(s). The category of children can be further distinguished as follows:

  1. Never-married sons and/or daughters in a census family, as used in censuses prior to 2001.
  2. Other sons and/or daughters in a census family who would not have been included in the census family of their parents according to the previous concept.
  3. Grandchildren living in the same household as their grandparent(s), with no parents present.

Persons not in census families: refer to household members who do not belong to a census family.

  1. Household living arrangements refers to the classification of persons in terms of whether they are members of a family household or of a non-family household, and whether they are family or non-family persons.

Final domestic demand: the sum of personal expenditure on consumer goods and services, net government current expenditure on goods and services, government gross fixed capital formation and business gross fixed capital formation.

Government current expenditure on goods and services: all current outlays for goods and services by the government sector, including wages and salaries of government employees. It also includes expenditure on weapons for defence and an imputation for the depreciation of government fixed assets. It is recorded before deduction of revenues from sales of goods and services in the government income and outlay account, and after deduction of these revenues in GDP (net government current expenditure on goods and services).

Gross domestic product (GDP): the total unduplicated value of the goods and services produced in the economic territory of a country or region during a given period. GDP can be measured three ways: as total incomes earned in current production, as total final sales of current production, or as total net values added in current production. It can be valued either at basic prices or at market prices.

Gross fixed capital formation: expenditures by the government and business sectors on buildings, engineering construction and machinery and equipment. Includes imports of used machinery and equipment, which constitute additions to domestic capital stock, and transfer costs on the sale of existing fixed assets (that is, real estate commissions). Comprises three broad categories: residential structures, non-residential structures and machinery and equipment. Government fixed capital formation includes spending on non-military defence buildings and equipment. Synonym of “investment in fixed capital”.

Home language: refers to the language spoken most often at home reported in the Census. If more than one language was spoken equally often, both were reported.

Hotels: establishments operating six or more hotel / motel-type rooms within a main building.

Household: refers to a person or group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It usually consists of a family group with or without lodgers, employees, etc. However, it may consist of two or more families sharing a dwelling, a group of unrelated persons, or one person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on Census Day are considered as part of their usual household. For census purposes, every person is a member of one and only one household. Unless otherwise specified, all data are for private households only.

The members of a household not only share the same living accommodation, but normally pool some or all of their resources, and consume certain goods and services collectively.

  1. Household type refers to the basic division of private households into family and non-family households.
  2. Family household refers to a household that contains at least one census family (e.g., a husband and wife living in the same dwelling, or a parent with a never-married child).
  3. One-family household refers to a single census family that occupies one private dwelling.
  4. Multiple-family household is one in which two or more census families occupy the same private dwelling.
  5. Non-family household refers to one person who lives alone in a private dwelling, or to a group of persons who occupy a private dwelling and do not constitute a census family.
  6. Occupied private dwelling refers to a private dwelling in which a person or group of persons is permanently residing. Also included are private dwellings whose usual residents are temporarily absent on Census Day.
  7. Private household refers to a person or group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.The number of private households equals the number of occupied private dwellings.


  1. Apartment and other category includes dwelling units found in a wide range of structures such as duplexes and double-duplexes.
  2. Apartment or flat dwellings are subdivided into two categories.
  3. Apartment, flat (duplex) refers to each dwelling in a structure originally designed, or structurally converted, to provide two dwelling units, one above the other and adjoining no other structure.
  4. Apartment, flat (other) includes all dwellings of the apartment, flat-type other than the duplex-type mentioned above.
  5. Bungalow is one storey single-detached dwelling.
  6. Completion is the stage at which all the proposed construction work on a dwelling unit has been performed.
  7. Dwelling refers to a structurally separate set of living quarters with a private entrance from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building.
  8. Mobile refers to any dwelling designed for movement and actually movable, such as a trailer, railway car or boat, if occupied by persons with no other usual residence on Census Day. If placed on a permanent foundation, it is considered to be “single detached”.
  9. Owned refers to a dwelling which is owned by some member of the household.A dwelling is classified as “owned” even though it may be mortgaged. This also includes dwellings under separate ownership in any multiple dwelling structure.
  10. Rented refers to a dwelling which is not owned by any member of the household.
  11. Row category comprises only single-attached houses in a row of three or more dwellings.
  12. Semi-detached category includes each one of two dwellings separated by a common wall extending from ground to roof, or by a garage.
  13. Single detached type is commonly called a “single house”. It includes linked homes which are attached below ground.
  14. Start is recorded when the footing has been installed, that is, when the concrete has been poured for the whole of the footing around the structure.

Immigrant: within the framework of this publication, the term immigrant refers to a landed immigrant. A landed immigrant is a person who does not have Canadian citizenship but was granted the right by immigration authorities to live in Canada on a permanent basis.

Imports of goods and services: current payments for imports of merchandise, travel of Canadians abroad, freight and shipping on foreign account and other services rendered by non-residents.

Income: for data based on tax returns, income is defined as income from the following sources:

  1. Wages, salaries and commissions;
  2. Other employment income (tips, gratuities, royalties, etc);
  3. Net self-employment income;
  4. Investment income (interest and other investments, dividends);
  5. Government transfer payments (payments to individuals from provincial and federal governments such as employment insurance, Old Age Security, Goods and Services Tax credit, Canada Child Tax Benefit, family benefits, provincial refundable tax credits, workmen’s compensation, social assistance, etc.);
  6. Private pensions (superannuation and other private pensions);
  7. RRSP income (for taxfilers aged 65 years or more);
  8. Other income (net rental income, alimony, income from a limited partnership, retiring allowances, scholarships, etc);

For data based on the 1996 Census, total income refers to the total money income received from the following sources during the calendar year 1995 by persons 15 years of age and over:

  1. wages and salaries (total);
  2. net farm income;
  3. net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice;
  4. federal Child Tax benefits;
  5. old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement;
  6. benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan;
  7. benefits from Unemployment Insurance;
  8. other income from government sources;
  9. dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other investment income;
  10. retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from RRSPs and RRIFs;
  11. other money income.

Independent retail stores: all retail outlets not meeting the requirements of a chain store outlet are automatically classified as “independent”, the only exception being department stores, which are classified as chain stores.

Indirect taxes: taxes which add to the cost of production and are likely to be reflected in market prices paid by the purchaser, such as sales and excise taxes, import duties and property taxes.

Interest and miscellaneous investment income: investment income of persons, except dividends, plus government investment income, less net investment income of persons and governments from non-residents, less the transfer portion of interest on the consumer debt, less the interest on the public debt.

Labour force: the civilian labour force is composed of that portion of the civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who were employed or unemployed.

Labour income: for data based on tax returns, labour income is defined as income from employment, self-employment and from employment insurance.

Machinery and equipment: capital expenditures on durable, tangible goods with an expected service life of one year or more, such as furniture, motor vehicles, office machines and equipment not permanently installed (permanently built-in equipment belongs to non-residential construction). Includes installation and delivery costs.

Manufacturing value added: consists of revenue from goods manufactured plus net change in inventory of goods in process and finished goods, less cost of materials and supplies, less cost of energy and water utility.

Market prices: a valuation expressed in terms of the prices actually paid by the purchaser, that is, after all applicable taxes and subsidies. See factor cost.

Median age: the median age is an age “x”, such that exactly one half of the population is older than “x” and the other half is younger than “x”.

Median Income: the median is the middle number in a group of numbers. Where a median income, for example, is given as $26,000, it means that exactly half of the incomes reported are greater than or equal to $26,000, and that the other half are less than or equal to the median amount. Median incomes in the data tables are rounded to the nearest hundred dollars. Zero values are not included in the calculation of medians for individuals, but are included in the calculation of medians for families.

For data based on tax returns, median incomes in the data tables are rounded to the nearest hundred dollars. Zero values are not included in the calculation of medians for individuals, but are included in the calculation of medians for families.

Metropolitan areas: See “Census Metropolitan Areas”.


  1. Interprovincial migration: represents movement from one province or territory to another involving a permanent change in residence. A person who takes up residence in another province or territory is an out-migrant with reference to the province or territory of origin, and an in-migrant with reference to the province or territory of destination.
  2. Net interprovincial migration: represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants for a given province or territory.
  3. International migration: represent movement of population between Canada and a foreign country which involves a change in the usual place of residence. A distinction is made with regard to immigrants, emigrants, returning emigrants, net temporary emigrants and net non-permanent residents.
  4. Net internal migration: sum of net intraprovincial and net interprovincial migration.
  5. Net international migration: is obtained according to the following formula: immigrants + returning emigrants + net non permanent residents – (emigrants + net temporary emigration).
  6. Net intraprovincial migration: represents the difference between in-migrants and out-migrants in a given region. A region can be defined as a census division, an economic region or a census metropolitan area. Intraprovincial migration represents movements from one region to another within the same province or territory involving a permanent change of residence. A person who takes up residence in another province or territory is an out-migrant with reference to the region of origin and an in-migrant with reference to the region of destination.
  7. Total net migration: sum of international and net interprovincial migration.
  8. Net non-permanent residents: represent the variation in the number of non-permanent residents between two dates.
  9. Net temporary emigration: represents the variation in the number of temporary emigrants between two dates. Temporary emigration includes Canadian citizens and immigrants living temporarily abroad who have not maintained a usual place of residence in Canada.

Non-permanent residents: a non permanent resident belongs to one of the five following groups:

  1. persons residing in Canada claiming refugee status;
  2. persons residing in Canada who hold a study permit;
  3. persons residing in Canada who hold a work permit;
  4. persons residing in Canada who hold a minister's permit;
  5. all non-Canadian born dependants of persons claiming refugee status, or of persons holding study permits, work permits or minister's permits and living in Canada.

Motels: establishments operating three or more motel-type rooms and less than six hotel / motel-type rooms. Motel rooms are accessible from the exterior only.

Mother tongue: the language first learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the Census.

Natural increase: variation in population size over a given period as a result of the difference between the numbers of births and deaths.

Net income of non-farm unincorporated business, including rent: earnings of unincorporated proprietors, except farm operators, from their own business. Includes the net income of unincorporated businesses and self-employed individuals, as well as the net rental income of persons.

Net income received by farm operators from farm production: gross proceeds from the sale of farm products, plus subsidies on a cash basis, plus the imputed value of farm output consumed by farming households, plus invest- men in farm inventories, less farm operating expenses and depreciation on farm buildings and equipment. Excludes other types of income, such as net rent or interest receipts, and profits of incorporated farms. See accrued net income of farm operators from farm production.

Outfitters: establishments generally located in remote areas where fish and game are available. Such establishments offer accommodation in lodges, cabins and/or campsites and provide essential facilities and services of boat rental, equipment rental, supplies and provisions, and guides.

Overseas manufactured vehicles: vehicles imported in a fully assembled state from countries other than the United States or Mexico. If they are assembled on this continent they are treated as being domestically manufactured vehicles.

Participation rate: the participation rate represents the labour force as percentage of the population 15 years of age and over. The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, etc.) is the labour force in that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Personal disposable income: personal income less current transfers to government.

Personal expenditure on consumer goods and services: household spending on new consumer goods and on consumer services, plus any mark-up on used goods. Operating expenses of associations of individuals serving households are also included, under consumer services.

Personal income: the sum of all incomes received by persons residing in Canada, whether factor earnings from current production or current transfers from other sectors, plus the investment income that associations of individuals accumulate on their own behalf or on behalf of persons.

Personal saving: personal disposable income less personal expenditure on consumer goods and services, less current transfers from persons to corporations and to non-residents.

Persons and unincorporated business sector: Agents of the personal sector plus those of the unincorporated business sector. In the capital and financial account, transactions of these two sectors are consolidated. In addition, in this account, although credit unions, life insurance companies and trusteed pension plans appear as sub-sectors of the corporate and government business enterprise sector, their transactions in financial assets are balanced by liabilities which, in turn, are recorded as assets of the persons and unincorporated business sector.

Population: estimated population and population according to the census are both defined as being the number of Canadians whose usual place of residence is in that area, regardless of where they happened to be on Census Day. Also included are any Canadians staying in a dwelling in that area on Census Day and having no usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada, as well as those considered non-permanent residents.

Population estimate

  1. Postcensal: population estimate produced by using data from the most recent available census adjusted for net undercoverage and estimate of the components of demographic growth since that last census. This estimate can be preliminary, updated or final.
  2. Intercensal: population estimate derived by using postcensal estimates and data adjusted for net undercount of censuses preceding and following the year in question.

Private dwelling: a separate set of living quarters with a private entrance either from outside or from a common hall, lobby, vestibule or stairway inside the building. The entrance to the dwelling must be one that can be used without passing through the living quarters of someone else. The dwelling must meet the three conditions necessary for year-round occupancy:

  1. a source of heat or power;
  2. a source of drinking water;
  3. an enclosed space that provides shelter from the elements.

Restaurants, caterers and taverns

  1. Caterers (industrial, social and mobile): establishments that prepare and serve food and beverages under contract, on the premises of manufacturing plants, office buildings, schools, etc. They may also prepare food on their own premises for delivery to parties, receptions, etc., and may also serve the food and provide bartending services (social caterers). Mobile caterers who drive to changing locations carrying prepared food are also included here.
  2. Licensed restaurants: establishments with a license to sell alcoholic beverages engaged in selling mainly prepared food and all kinds of alcohol, for consumption on the premises.
  3. Taverns, bars and night clubs: establishments which sell alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises. Food may be sold in minor quantities and entertainment may be provided.

Retail chain: a retail chain is defined as an organization operating four or more retail outlets in the same industry class under the same legal ownership at any time during the survey year.

The only exception is department store organizations which are treated statistically with retail chains even though they may fail to meet the criterion of four or more retail stores. Any firm not meeting the above definition is automatically classified as an “independent”. Franchised stores and voluntary group stores are therefore considered as independent unless they meet all the conditions of the chain definition.

Retail location: in general, retail stores have extensive displays of merchandise and use mass-media advertising to attract customers. They typically sell merchandise to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some also serve business and institutional clients.

Retail trade: the retail trade sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing merchandise, generally without transformation, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise.

The retailing process is the final step in the distribution of merchandise; retailers are therefore organized to sell merchandise in small quantities to the general public. This sector comprises two main types of retailers, that is, store and non-store retailers. The Monthly Retail Trade Survey (MRTS) covers only store retailers. Their main characteristics are described below.

Store retailers operate fixed point-of-sale locations, located and designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers. In general, retail stores have extensive displays of merchandise and use mass-media advertising to attract customers. They typically sell merchandise to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some also serve business and institutional clients. These include establishments such as office supplies stores, computer and software stores, gasoline stations, building material dealers, plumbing supplies stores and electrical supplies stores.

In addition to selling merchandise, some types of store retailers are also engaged in the provision of after-sales services, such as repair and installation. For example, new automobile dealers, electronic and appliance stores and musical instrument and supplies stores often provide repair services, while floor covering stores and window treatment stores often provide installation services. As a general rule, establishments engaged in retailing merchandise and providing after sales services are classified in this sector.

Catalogue sales showrooms, gasoline service stations, and mobile home dealers are treated as store retailers.

Returning emigrant: Canadian citizen or immigrant having previously emigrated from Canada and subsequently returned to the country.

Rural areas: rural areas are sparsely populated lands lying outside urban areas.

Sales: the total sales of merchandise and receipts from repairs, equipment rental, restaurants and other services, less returns, adjustments and discounts. Trade-in allowances are not deducted. Commissions earned from the sale of goods owned by others and proprietors’ withdrawals of goods (at the retail level) for personal use are included. Non-trading revenues, bad debts recovered and direct sales taxes are excluded.

Self-Employment Income: for data based on income tax returns, self-employment income is defined as net income from businesses, professional occupations, commissions, farming and fishing.

Shopping centre: a shopping centre is composed of a group of stores which are planned, developed and designed as a unit containing a minimum of four retail establishments. A centre must be anchored by a supermarket or a department store and one of the retail outlets must be a member of a chain organization.

  1. Indoor shopping mall: defined as a group of at least ten retail and service outlets of which four outlets must be and retail and one a restaurant or of which five outlets must be retail located in a complex usually designed primarily for some other purpose (for example, offices, apartments, hotels).

Supplementary labour income: employers’ social contributions, either compulsory or voluntary. Includes retirement allowances and contributions to employment insurance, the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans, other pension plans, workers’ compensation, medicare, dental plans, short- and long-term disability insurance, etc.

Taxes on factors of production: these are mandatory payments without consideration, in cash or in kind, collected by government. They apply to production and the import of goods and services, employment of labour and ownership of use of land, structures and other assets used for production purposes. They are payable regardless of quantity or value of the goods and services produced or sold.

Taxes on products: these are mandatory payments without consideration, collected by government on the sale of goods and services. These taxes include sales taxes, fuel taxes, import duties and taxes, excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol.

Taxfilers: for data based on tax returns, taxfilers are defined as people who filed a tax return for the reference year and were alive at the end of the year. Starting with the 1993 tax year, those taxfilers who died within the tax year and who had a non-filing spouse had their income and their filing status attributed to the surviving spouse.

Tent and trailer campgrounds: establishments offering a minimum of 10 tent and trailer spaces.

Tourist courts and cabins: establishments with 3 or more accommodation units, the majority of which are cabins or cottages.

Trading Location: the trading location is defined as the physical outlet in which retailing or wholesaling activity takes place. The trading location must be capable of providing a limited range of statistics even though they may, in some instances, have to be estimated.

Transfers: cash, good, service, or asset other than cash transferred by one transactor to another without counterpart, that is, without the donor receiving anything in return.

Unattached individuals: persons living alone or rooming in a household where they are not related to other household members.

Unemployed: the unemployed include persons who, during the reference week:

  1. were without work, had actively looked for work in the past four weeks (ending with reference week) and were available for work;
  2. were on temporary layoff with an expectation for recall and were available for work;
  3. had a new job to start in four weeks or less from the reference week, and were available for work.

Unemployment rate: the unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a per cent of the labour force. The unemployment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, etc.) is the unemployment in that group expressed as a percent of the labour force for that group.

Urban area (UA): urban areas have minimum population concentrations of 1,000 and a population density of at least 400 per square kilometre, based on the previous census population counts. All territory outside urban areas is considered rural. Taken together, urban and rural areas cover all of Canada.

Urban centre: urban centres are composed of census metropolitan areas and Census Agglomerations, often composed of several municipalities or Census Subdivisions.

Urban core, urban fringe and rural fringe: the urban core, urban fringe and rural fringe distinguish between central and peripheral urban and rural areas within a census metropolitan area or census agglomeration.

  1. An urban core is a large urban area around which a CMA or a CA is delineated.The urban core must have a population (based on the previous census) of a least 100,000 in the case of a CMA, or between 10,000 and 99,999 in the case of a CA.
  2. The urban fringe is the urban area within a CMA or CA that is not contiguous to the urban core.
  3. The rural fringe is all territory within a CMA or CA not classified as urban core or urban fringe.

Wages and salaries: total remuneration, in cash or in kind, paid to employees in return for work done. It is recorded on a gross basis, before any deduction for income taxes, pensions, unemployment insurance and other social insurance schemes. Also includes other forms of compensation, namely commissions, tips, bonuses, directors’ fees and allowances such as those for holidays and sick leave, as well as military pay and allowances. Excludes employers’ social contributions, which are treated as supplementary labour income.

Wholesale Agents and Brokers: wholesale agents and brokers buy and sell merchandise owned by others on a fee or commission basis. They do not take title to the goods they buy or sell, and they generally operate at or from an office location.

Wholesale agents and brokers are known by a variety of trade designations including import-export agents, wholesale commission agents, wholesale brokers, and manufacturer's representatives and agents.

This sector recognizes two main types of wholesalers, that is, wholesale merchants and wholesale agents and brokers.

Wholesale merchants: wholesale merchants buy and sell merchandise on their own account, that is, they take title to the goods they sell. They generally operate from warehouse or office locations and they may ship from their own inventory or arrange for the shipment of goods directly from the supplier to the client. In addition to the sale of goods, they may provide, or arrange for the provision of, logistics, marketing and support services, such as packaging and labelling, inventory management, shipping, handling of warranty claims, in-store or co-op promotions, and product training. Dealers of machinery and equipment, such as dealers of farm machinery and heavy-duty trucks, also fall within this category.

Wholesale merchants are known by a variety of trade designations depending on their relationship with suppliers or customers, or the distribution method they employ. Examples include wholesale merchants, wholesale distributors, drop shippers, rack-jobbers, import-export merchants, buying groups, dealer-owned cooperatives and banner wholesalers.

The first eight subsectors of wholesale trade comprise wholesale merchants. The grouping of these establishments into industry groups and industries is based on the merchandise line or lines supplied by the wholesaler.

Wholesalers: this sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in wholesaling merchandise and providing related logistics, marketing and support services. The wholesaling process is generally an intermediate step in the distribution of merchandise; many wholesalers are therefore organized to sell merchandise in large quantities to retailers, and business and institutional clients. However, some wholesalers, in particular those that supply non-consumer capital goods, sell merchandise in single units to final users.

Work week: the standard workweek is the number of hours or days of work normally scheduled for the majority of full-time employees.