Rural Canada Non-Profits Database 2019
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1. Introduction

Non-profit businesses or organizations (NPOs), or non-profits, play an important role in the well-being and development of communities. NPOs have long served rural communities when critical services and supports are not provided by for-profit businesses or by governments. The Rural Canada Non-Profits (RCNP) database is product of Statistics Canada that provides estimates for the counts, revenues, and employment numbers of non-profit businesses in both rural and urban areas of Canada. This first release of the RCNP database provides data for the 2019 tax year. The database can be used for multiple purposes, e.g., for understanding the level of activity of non-profits in communities, what types of non-profit activities they are engaged in, for benchmarking of a community against comparable communities, etc. This product would be useful for a variety of rural stakeholders such as businesses, levels of government, researchers, rural residents, as well as residents of urban areas.

This document presents the data sources, methods and classification concepts used in the production of the RCNP. It accompanies the release of the RCNP 2019 version of the database.

2. Database structure and contents

The RCNP provides data on the counts, revenues, and number of employees for NPOs in Canada. This information is made available by NPO activity type in terms of the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO),Note  as well as by industry in terms of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). In addition to values at the Canada level, the data are provided geographically for provinces/territories and their rural/urban parts. A table is also provided for counts, revenues, and number of employees at the census subdivision (CSD) level; however, this table does not provide breakdowns by NAICS or by ICNPO.

The structure of the RCNP database is summarized in Table 1.


Table 1
Overview of RCNP database tables and their structure
Table summary
This table displays the results of Table 1 Overview of RCNP database tables and their structure. The information is grouped by Tables (appearing as row headers), Variables , Geographical levels and Non-profit/Industry classification (appearing as column headers).
Tables Variables Geographical levels Non-profit/Industry classification
Table 1 Counts of non-profits Canada Not used
Revenues Provinces and Territories
Employment Rural and Urban parts of Provinces and Territories
Census Subdivision (CSD)
Table 2 Counts of non-profits Canada The International Classification of Non-profit Organizations (ICNPO) (12 activity groups)
Revenues Provinces and Territories
Employment Rural and Urban parts of Provinces and Territories
Table 3 Counts of non-profits Canada North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2017 Version 3.0 (2 digits)
Revenues Provinces and Territories
Employment Rural and Urban parts of Provinces and Territories

The definitions of the variables available in the RCNP are provided in the data dictionary in section 9.

3. Data sources

The RCNP database is created based on data obtained from Statistics Canada’s Business Register (BR) database. The BR is a comprehensive list of businesses in Canada.Note  It contains such information for businesses as address, non-profit/for-profit status, industry, as well as their Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) filings and tax returns data, including revenues and employment. BR data are updated on a monthly basis.

While intended primarily as a frame for the conduct of business surveys by Statistics Canada, the BR is used advantageously for analytical and other statistical purposes. For example, the BR can be used to compile business demographic indicators like counts of enterprises in industries by province/territory.

4. Reference period of the database

The reference period of this first release of the RCNP database is 2019.

5 In-scope businesses

The primary determinant for inclusion of a business in the RCNP database is classification as a non-profit on the BR. A non-profit (i.e., a non-profit organization, institution, or business) operates for a purpose other than profit. The RCNP includes non-profits that are charities. The RCNP database includes all non-profits or NPOs as identified by the BR, irrespective of the sector (households, businesses, or governments) that they are serve.

NPOs were included in the RCNP database if they reported either revenues, number of employees, or both for 2019. Public administration (NAICS code 91) businesses are excluded from the database. For-profit businesses are out of scope for the RCNP.

6 Compilation methodology

This section provides an overview of the processing carried out to compile the database. The tables contained in the RCNP are organized according to the structure presented in Table 1 above.

6.1 Listing of NPOs active in 2019

The initial step in the creation of the RCNP database was bringing together records from multiple monthly files of the BR to create a list of all NPOs that showed signs of certain types of activity at any time in 2019. This included examining the presence of employees or revenues for the 2019 reference year in monthly files of the BR ranging from January 2019 to December 2021. Only businesses designated as non-profit on the BR were retained, i.e., for-profit businesses were excluded. This resulted in a list of NPOs that either had employees, revenues, or both, for 2019.

Employment figures in the RCNP database are based primarily on CRA Statement of account for current source deductions (PD7)Note  data. Revenues are based primarily on income tax filings with the CRA. Employment and revenue values were obtained from the appropriate BR file for the above list of NPOs. When the organizational structure of an NPO had several locations for the same enterprise, a separate record for each location was included, along with the employment and revenue values for each. These location-level values are based on profiling of businesses carried out by Statistics Canada or on employment or revenue allocation factors computed by Statistics Canada.

6.2 Rural or urban classification of businesses

For this database, the statistical unit is the business location (also referred to as “location” in this document).Note  The BR assigns each business location to a census subdivision (CSD) according to its operating address or legal address postal code. The rural and urban breakdown classification on business was based on business locations.

The breakdown of Canada and provincial/territorial levels were created based on the 2016 Standard Geographical Classification (SGC).Note  Census subdivisions (CSDs), or communities, outside of Census Metropolitan Areas/Census Agglomerations (CMA/CAs) are considered “rural”, while those inside a CMA/CA are considered “urban”.

Based on whether a business location’s CSD was rural or urban, it was allocated into one of the following categories:

  • A business location in a CSD outside of CMA/CAs was classified as rural.
  • A business location in a CSD inside a CMA/CA was classified as urban.

6.3 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) assignment

Businesses/organizations are classified by industry using the business’s North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)Note  industry assignment on the BR. This assignment is based on the business’s primary industry. The structure of the NAICS classification is hierarchical, using a code that is between 2 and 6 digits long depending on the level of the hierarchy. This is shown in Table 2.


Table 2
NAICS hierarchy structure
Table summary
This table displays the results of Table 2 NAICS hierarchy structure. The information is grouped by Code (appearing as row headers), Hierarchical level (appearing as column headers).
Code Hierarchical level
11 Sector
111 Subsector
1111 Industry group
11111 Industry
111111 Canadian industry

The RCNP database provides tabulations by NAICS classification at the two-digit, or sector, level (in addition to tabulations by the International Classification of Non-profit Organizations (ICNPO) – see section 6.4 below). The RCNP includes all industry sectors except Public administration (NAICS 91).

6.4 International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO)

The RCNP database also provides tabulations by the International Classification of Non-profit Organizations (ICNPO). The ICNPO classifies NPOs according to their primary area of non-profit activity. This is the classification system recommended for the non-profit sector in the United Nations (UN) Handbook on Non-Profit Institutions for the System of National Accounts.Note 

The ICNPO system classifies NPOs into 12 major groups, including a catch-all, residual group known as 'not elsewhere classified’:

  • Group 1A: Culture and recreation
  • Group 1B: Sports, Recreation and Social Clubs
  • Group 2: Education and research
  • Group 3: Health
  • Group 4: Social services
  • Group 5: Environment
  • Group 6: Development and housing
  • Group 7: Law, advocacy and politics
  • Group 8: Philanthropic intermediaries and voluntarism promotion
  • Group 9: International ActivitiesNote 
  • Group 10: Religion
  • Group 11: Business and professional associations, unions
  • Group 12: Not elsewhere classified

The ICNPO category of a non-profit was obtained using a mapping of NAICS codes to ICNPO groups. This mapping is also used by Statistics Canada’s System of National Accounts Satellite Account of Non-profit Institutions and Volunteering.Note  The mapping used is provided in Table 3 in section 8.

6.5 Protecting confidentiality

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any data which would divulge information obtained under the Statistics ActNote  that relates to any identifiable person, business or organization without the prior knowledge or the consent in writing of that person, business or organization. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

The level of granularity provided by the RCNP database (e.g., geographic, industry, etc.) requires that some values be suppressed in order to protect the confidentiality of businesses contributing to the aggregate in a particular cell of a table in the RCNP data. Data suppression has been implemented using a hierarchy-aware confidentiality program (G-Confid) developed by Statistics Canada in order to preserve confidentiality.

A value may be suppressed to protect confidentiality for two reasons:

  1. Primary suppression: There are too few businesses contributing to the value of a cell; or, a cell value is dominated by one or too few businesses.
  2. Secondary suppression: Another cell is suppressed to protect the value of a primary suppressed cell so a higher-level aggregate data can be published. For example, if the value of a variable (e.g., revenues) for only one CSD in a particular province and industry is suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements, the value for this variable for another CSD in this industry is also suppressed. This is done in order to prevent the suppressed value from being derived as a residual from the corresponding total for that province and industry.

7. Possible future updates and revision strategy

Possible future updates of the database would add another reference year at a time. Possible future releases of the RCNP may incorporate changes to the methodology of the product or the type and contents of the tables it provides. Data for reference years already released may undergo revision as a result.

8. Mapping between ICNPO and NAICS

The mapping used in RCNP between the International Classification on Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO) and the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is shown below.


Table 3
Mapping between ICNPO and NAICS
Table summary
This table displays the results of Table 3 Mapping between ICNPO and NAICS. The information is grouped by ICNPO group code (appearing as row headers), ICNPO group, Corresponding NAICS codes and Corresponding NAICS descriptions (appearing as column headers).
ICNPO group code ICNPO group Corresponding NAICS codes Corresponding NAICS descriptions
Group 1A Culture and recreation 511 Publishing Industries (except Internet)
512 Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries
515 Broadcasting (except Internet)
517 Telecommunications
518 Internet Service Providers, Web Search Portals, and Data Processing Services
519 Other Information Services
7111 Performing Arts Companies
7113 Promoters (Presenters) of Performing Arts, Sports and Similar Events
7114 Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers and Other Public Figures
7115 Independent Artists, Writers and Performers
712 Heritage Institutions
Group 1B Sports, recreation and social clubs 7112 Spectator Sports
7139 Other Amusement and Recreation Industries
8134 Civic and Social Organisations
81399 Other Membership Organizations
Group 2 Education and research 5417 Scientific Research and Development Services
611 Educational Services
Group 3 Health 621 Ambulatory Health Care Services
622 Hospitals
6231 Nursing Care Facilities
62322 Residential Mental Health and Substance Abuse Facilities
Group 4 Social services 62321 Residential Developmental Handicap Facilities
6233 Community Care Facilities for Elderly
6239 Other Residential Care Facilities
6241 Individual & Family Services
62421 Community Food Services
62422 Community Housing Services
62423 Emergency and Other Relief Services
6244 Child Day-Care Services
8122 Funeral Services
Group 5 Environment 54132 Landscape Architectural Services
54162 Environmental Consulting Services
54194 Veterinary Services
5621 Waste Collection
5622 Waste Treatment and Disposal
5629 Remediation and Other Waste Management Services
81291 Pet Care Services
Group 6 Development and housing 221 Utilities
23 Construction
48, 49 Transportation and Warehousing
52 Finance and Insurance (except 526989)
53 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing Services
5613 Employment Services
6243 Vocational Rehabilitation Services
721 Accommodation
Group 7 Law, advocacy and politics 5411 Legal Services
8133 Social Advocacy Organisations
81394 Political Organisations
Group 8 Philanthropic intermediaries and voluntarism promotion 526989 All Other Miscellaneous Funds and Financial Vehicles (see foundation funds)
56149 Other Business Support Services (includes fundraising service for fees)
8132 Grant-Making and Giving Services
Group 10 Religion 8131 Religious Organisations
Group 11 Business and professional associations, unions 81391 Business Associations
81392 Professional Organisations
81393 Labour Organisations
Group 12 Not elsewhere classified Various NAICS codes that have not been classified elsewhere to another ICNPO grouping

9. Data dictionary

A list of the variables included in the RCNP database, including their definitions, is provided below.

Variable – Region Code

Name
Region_Code
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada's Business Register
Description
The code of the region in which the NPOs postal code is located. This variable has been derived from the business address in Statistics Canada's Business Register and is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. From a statistical point of view, province and territory are basic areas for which data are tabulated. Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. Region codes provided in this database include Canada, provinces and territories. For more information on the SGC, see Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Region Name

Name
Region_Name
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada's Business Register
Description
The name of the region in which the NPOs postal code is located. This variable has been derived from the business address in Statistics Canada's Business Register and is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. From a statistical point of view, province and territory are basic areas for which data are tabulated. Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. Region codes provided in this database include Canada, provinces and territories. For more information on the SGC, see Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Census Subdivision Code

Name
Census_Subdivision_Code
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada's Business Register
Description
The 7-digit code of the Census Subdivision (CSD) in which the NPOs postal code is located. It is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. All CSDs are included in the database. For more information on the SGC, see Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Census Subdivision Name

Name
Census_Subdivision_Name
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The name of the Census Subdivision (CSD) in which the NPOs postal code is located. It is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. All CSDs are included in the database. For more information on the SGC, see Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Rural or Urban Indicator Code

Name
Rural_Urban_Code
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The code showing the rural or urban status of the NPOs postal code. This variable is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. All census subdivisions (CSDs) and their regional aggregates outside census metropolitan areas/census agglomerations are coded as "1" for rural areas, "2" for urban areas, and “0” for rural and urban areas combined. For more information on the SGC, see Statistics Canada’s Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Rural or Urban Indicator Description

Name
Rural_Urban_Description
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada's Business Register
Description
The description of the type of area, i.e., rural or urban area, based on the NPOs postal code. This variable is based on Statistics Canada's Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 using the postal code of the business address. All census subdivisions (CSDs) and their regional aggregates outside census metropolitan areas/census agglomerations are coded as "Rural areas" for rural areas, "Urban areas" for urban areas, and “All areas” for rural and urban areas combined. For more information on the SGC, see Statistics Canada’s Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2016 - Volume I, The Classification (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO) Group Code

Name
ICNPO_Code
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The 2-digit code of the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO) group of the non-profit business. Obtained by using a mapping of the non-profit’s main North American Industry Classification Standard (NAICS) industry (obtained from Statistics Canada's Business Register) to the ICNPO. For more information about the ICNPO groups, see – The International Classification of Non-profit Organizations (ICNPO) (statcan.gc.ca). For the mapping of NAICS to ICNPO used for the RCNP, see section 8, Table 3.

Variable – International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO) Group Name

Name
ICNPO_Name
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The name of the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO) group of the non-profit business. Obtained by mapping the non-profit’s main North American Industry Classification Standard (NAICS) category (obtained from Statistics Canada's Business Register) to the ICNPO. For more information about the ICNPO groups, please see – The International Classification of Non-profit Organizations (ICNPO) (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – North American Industry Classification System Industry Code

Name
NAICS_Industry_Code
Format
Integer
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The 2-digit North American Industry Classification Standard (NAICS) industry code of the non-profit. The NAICS industry is based on Statistics Canada's Business Register and indicates the main industry of the non-profit For more information see Statistics Canada’s Introduction to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2017 Version 3.0 (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – North American Industry Classification System Industry Name

Name
NAICS_Industry_Name
Format
String
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register
Description
The name of the 2-digit North American Industry Classification Standard (NAICS) industry of the non-profit. The NAICS industry is based on Statistics Canada's Business Register and indicates the main industry of the non-profit. For more information see Statistics Canada’s Introduction to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2017 Version 3.0 (statcan.gc.ca).

Variable – Counts

Name
Counts
Format
Integer
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada's Business Register
Description
Sum of counts of the business locations represented in the table cell.

Variable – Revenue

Name
Revenue
Format
Float
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register and business location allocation tables.
Description
Sum of revenues generated by the business locations represented in the table cell.

Variable – Employment

Name
Employment
Format
Integer
Source
Derived from Statistics Canada’s Business Register and business location allocation tables.
Description
Sum of employment of the business locations represented in the table cell.
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