Environment Fact Sheets
British Columbia’s forest fires, 2018

by Jennie Wang and Katharine Strong

Release date: May 29, 2019

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Back-to-back record fire seasons in British Columbia have increased attention on the impacts of forest fires, especially given predictions that the frequency and severity of forest fires in Canada will increase (Natural Resources Canada, 2018).

In 2018, British Columbia experienced its worst fire season on record with 2,115 fires and 1.35 million hectares burned (British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development [B.C. FLNRORD], BC Wildfire Service, 2019a). It surpassed 2017’s fire season—previously the largest burned area—in which over 1.22 million ha were burned. Fires in British Columbia accounted for about 60% of the total burned area in Canada in 2018, compared to an average of 7% over the 1990 to 2018 period (National Forestry Database [NFD], 2019).Note  

The largest fires occurred in the Stikine Region, Kitimat-Stikine Regional District, Bulkley-Nechako Regional District and the Cariboo Regional District (Map 1). Several other large fires occurred around the province, including fires in the Peace River Regional District, Northern Rockies Regional District, Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District and the Central Kootenay Regional District.

Fires play an important role in forest health, diversity and renewal. However, they emit greenhouse gases (Chart 1), pose risks to human health and safety, and can cause significant economic impacts and disruptions. An estimated $615 million was spent on fire management and suppression operations in 2018 (B.C. FLNRORD, n.d.). Additional costs can be associated with evacuations and property losses; however, estimates of property losses are not yet available (NFD, 2019).

Smoke from the fires in British Columbia, as well as fires from the United States, contributed to the poor air quality measured in many parts of the province throughout the summer (Map 2). All air quality measuring stations had at least one day where Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) observations reached 7 or higher, which is considered a high health risk (Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2018 and 2015). Stations with the most days where the AQHI reached 7 or higher include Prince George (32 days), Castlegar (30 days) and Quesnel (26 days), Williams Lake (20 days), Fort St. John (18 days), Central Okanagan (18 days) and South Okanagan (18 days).

High AQHI ratings trigger warnings that people should consider reducing or should reduce strenuous outdoor activities. Children, the elderly and those with heart and breathing problems or other health issues are most at risk of adverse effects of air pollution and are advised to reduce or avoid outdoor physical exertion at these times. In 2016, 15% of British Columbians were children under 15 years of age, while 2% were age 85 and older (Table 1). Almost three-quarters of British Columbians 15 years of age or older reported that they participated in outdoor activities, such as hiking or backpacking, wildlife viewing, tent camping, canoeing  or kayaking, mountain biking, and others in 2016 (Statistics Canada, 2018a). This percentage dropped to 57% for those who rated their own health level as fair or poor.

Industries that may experience impacts related to fires and poor air quality include construction, tourism, agriculture and forestry, among others. For example, workers in the construction industry, which accounted for more than 8% of British Columbia’s labour force in 2016 (Statistics Canada, 2018b), may experience health symptoms if working outdoors when air quality is poor. Tourism, which contributed 2.9% of the province’s GDP in 2014 and 5.1% of employment (Statistics Canada, 2018c), can be affected when residents, as well as tourists from other provinces or countries alter travel plans in the province. For example, regional tourist associations have estimated significant economic impacts of the 2017 wildfires on tourism, including cancellations due to smoke, road closures, evacuation alerts and orders, (Peak Solutions Consulting, 2018; Larose Research and Strategy, 2018).

Farms including buildings, crops and livestock, can be at risk from fires, and fires can also affect Crown rangeland for cattle. In 2016, over 56,000 cattle and calves were located just in the Bulkley-Nechako Regional District (Statistics Canada, 2017a), which had among the largest burned areas in 2018. Meanwhile grapes, of which close to 86% of the provincial acreage is grown in the Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District and the Central Okanagan Regional District (Statistics Canada, 2017b), can be affected by close proximity to fire and smoke, causing wine to develop unpleasant burnt flavours, a phenomenon known as ‘smoke taint’ (Kennison et al., 2009).

The forest sector is affected through loss of valuable timber when trees suffer burn damage (B.C. FLNRORD, 2018a). Severe fires and salvage operations can also negatively affect forest ecosystems and as well as downstream communities as a result of increased risk of soil erosion and flooding (B.C. FLNRORD, 2018b). Forest fires can also affect other regulating services such nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration and local climate regulation, as well cultural services such as recreation and aesthetic appreciation.

Chart 1 Fire area and greenhouse gas emissions, British Columbia, 1990 to 2018

Data table for Chart 1 
Data table for chart 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for chart 1 Total area burned and Wildfire greenhouse gas emissions, calculated using hectares and kilotonnes of CO2 equivalent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total area burned Wildfire greenhouse gas emissions
hectares kilotonnes of CO2 equivalent
1990 75,783 12,113
1991 24,708 4,422
1992 30,452 4,696
1993 5,183 844
1994 30,308 5,072
1995 48,080 8,719
1996 14,952 3,166
1997 1,876 436
1998 43,681 12,842
1999 11,666 2,668
2000 17,675 797
2001 9,668 2,369
2002 8,586 654
2003 264,736 46,433
2004 220,516 35,411
2005 34,664 4,466
2006 139,201 21,720
2007 29,416 3,878
2008 13,240 2,280
2009 247,420 40,060
2010 337,150 61,992
2011 12,604 3,198
2012 102,124 16,274
2013 18,303 4,651
2014 368,926 62,927
2015 280,738 46,202
2016 100,214 11,872
2017 1,216,112 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2018 1,354,300 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period

Map 1

Map 1 Forest fires and population centres in British Columbia, 2018

Description for Map 1

The title of this map is “Forest fires and population centres in British Columbia, 2018.” This map provides a visual representation of forest fire locations, population centres and census divisions in British Columbia. The map has five components – a large map of British Columbia showing census divisions, population centres and fire area, three inset maps which show more detailed views of selected areas, and a legend.

The main map shows all of British Columbia at a 1:20,000,000 scale with light grey topographic detail. A dark grey line shows the provincial boundary, within which light grey lines designate the census division boundaries. Census divisions are also labelled by number which correspond to their names in the legend. Population centres are represented by black points. Fire location is shown using red polygons, or for fires smaller than 0.01 hectares (10 by 10 metres), by points. Three locations are highlighted by square boxes A, B and C which correspond to the inset maps on the left. Inset A covers the Bulkley-Nechako and Cariboo regions, while Inset B shows the Okanagan region. Inset C shows the Central and East Kootenay regions.

A group of large fires is located in the Bulkley-Nechako and Cariboo regional districts, in central British Columbia. Stikine Region and Kitimat-Stikine Regional District, in the north of British Columbia, also have large fires. Several other large fires occurred around the province, including fires in the Peace River Regional District, Northern Rockies Regional District, Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District and the Central Kootenay Regional District. Smaller fires and spot fires are scattered throughout the province.

The first inset map on the top left, Inset A, shows a closer view of the Bulkley-Nechako and Cariboo region fires at a 1:8,000,000 scale. The map shows the census division labels for Kitimat-Stikine, Bulkley-Nechako, Central Coast, Cariboo and Fraser-Fort George. Large fires are seen near the Houston, Burns Lake, Vanderhoof and Fort St. James population centres in Bulkley-Nechako. The population centres of Prince George and Quesnel are also shown in the south-eastern region of the map. Spot fires, represented by points, are scattered throughout the region.

Inset B shows fires in the southern Okanagan region, located in south British Columbia near the United States border, at a 1:4,000,000 scale. The map shows the census division labels for Thompson Nicola, Fraser Valley, Okanagan-Similkameen and Kootenay Boundary. The largest fire is seen just south of Keremeos, and another large fire is located west of Keremeos, south of Princeton. Population centres shown on this map include Osoyoos, Oliver, Keremeos, Okanagan Falls, Penticton, Summerland, Naramata, Peachland, Kelowna, Duck Lake, Princeton, Hope and Merritt. Spot fires, represented by points, are scattered throughout the region.

The final inset map, Inset C, shows a closer view of the Kootenay region in southeast British Columbia, at a 1:4,000,000 scale. Census division labels shown are East Kootenay, Central Kootenay and North Okanagan. Large fires are seen west of Castlegar, east of Salmo and west of Cranbrook. Population centres Rossland, Trail – Fruitvale, Nelson, Creston, Kimberley, Nakusp and Invermere are also shown. Spot fires, represented by points, are scattered throughout the region.

Map 1 has a note below the map that reads:

Notes: Fire data are for April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019. Wildfires smaller than 0.01 hectares are represented by points.


Legend
Table summary
This table displays the results of Legend. The information is grouped by Category (appearing as row headers), Symbol (appearing as column headers).
Category Symbol
Population centre Black point
Wildfire locations Red polygon or point
Census division boundary Light grey line
Provincial boundary Dark grey line
Census division Census division code
East Kootenay 1
Central Kootenay 3
Kootenay Boundary 5
Okanagan-Similkameen 7
Fraser Valley 9
Greater Vancouver 15
Capital 17
Cowichan Valley 19
Nanaimo 21
Alberni-Clayoquot 23
Strathcona 24
Comox Valley 26
Powell River 27
Sunshine Coast 29
Squamish-Lillooet 31
Thompson-Nicola 33
Central Okanagan 35
North Okanagan 37
Columbia-Shuswap 39
Cariboo 41
Mount Waddington 43
Central Coast 45
Skeena-Queen Charlotte 47
Kitimat-Stikine 49
Bulkley-Nechako 51
Fraser-Fort George 53
Peace River 55
Stikine 57
Northern Rockies 59

Data Table 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data 1. The information is grouped by Code (appearing as row headers), Census division, Total fires, 2018 fire season and Total area burned, 2018 fire season, calculated using number and hectares units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Code Census division Total fires, 2018 fire season Total area burned, 2018 fire season
number hectares
59 British Columbia 2,115 1,354,300
5901 East Kootenay 97 23,316
5903 Central Kootenay 138 28,616
5905 Kootenay Boundary 58 1,046
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen 94 38,405
5909 Fraser Valley 51 7,285
5915 Greater Vancouver 5 16
5917 Capital 8 86
5919 Cowichan Valley 11 7
5921 Nanaimo 22 209
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot 9 43
5924 Strathcona 68 9,697
5926 Comox Valley 9 1
5927 Powell River 9 89
5929 Sunshine Coast 7 0
5931 Squamish-Lillooet 45 1,392
5933 Thompson-Nicola 231 16,872
5935 Central Okanagan 34 1,849
5937 North Okanagan 62 3,650
5939 Columbia-Shuswap 193 4,676
5941 Cariboo 306 204,699
5943 Mount Waddington 69 33,392
5945 Central Coast 7 1
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte 4 7
5949 Kitimat-Stikine 63 146,202
5951 Bulkley-Nechako 201 454,798
5953 Fraser-Fort George 106 13,900
5955 Peace River 99 58,270
5957 Stikine 25 272,560
5959 Northern Rockies 84 33,216

Map 1 PDF version

Map 2

Map 2 Forest fires and number of days qith high health risk resulting from poor air quality

Description for Map 2

The title of this map is “Forest fires and number of days with high health risk resulting from poor air quality.” This map provides a visual representation of air quality stations, the number of days with high health risk resulting from poor air quality, and wildfire locations during the 2018 fire season in British Columbia. The map has two components – a map of British Columbia with labelled air quality stations and fire locations, and a legend.

In the map component, a large portion of British Columbia is shown with census division (medium grey line) and provincial boundaries (dark grey line) overlaid. Wildfire locations are represented by light red polygons with a red border, and also by red points in the case of fires smaller than 0.01 hectares. Fire data are for April 1, 2018 to March 31st, 2019. Large fires are seen in the mid-to-northern region of British Columbia, near Prince George, Quesnel, Williams Lake, Smithers and Terrace. Medium-sized fires are also seen throughout the rest of the province, with many spot fires in between.

The number of days with Air Quality Health Index values greater than or equal to seven is represented by circles of varying sizes and colours. The map presents data for 25 air quality observation stations across British Columbia, most of them in the southern portion of the province. A small yellow ochre circle represents one to five days with an Air Quality Health Index value greater than or equal to seven. A medium deep orange circle represents 6 to 10 days with an Air Quality Health Index value greater than or equal to seven. A large bright red circle represents 11 to 19 days with an Air Quality Health Index value greater than or equal to seven. Lastly, an extra-large brown circle represents twenty or more days with an Air Quality Health Index value greater than or equal to seven.

In general, air quality stations in mainland British Columbia experienced a higher number of days with Air Quality Health Index values greater than or equal to seven. Prince George, located in Northern British Columbia, had the highest number of days with poor air quality, at 32 days. Also among the highest number of days were Castlegar, Quesnel and Williams Lake, with 20 or more days of poor air quality. Eastern Fraser Valley, Whistler and Thompson – Okanagan air quality stations, as well as Fort St. John in the north, all had between 11 and 18 days of poor air quality. Metro Vancouver, Central Fraser Valley, Squamish, Vancouver Island, and northwestern stations Terrace and Smithers all had between one and nine days of poor air quality.

Map 2 has a note below the map that reads:

Note: Wildfires smaller than 0.01 hectares are represented by points.


Legend
Table summary
This table displays the results of Legend. The information is grouped by Map element (appearing as row headers), Symbol (appearing as column headers).
Map element Symbol
Census division boundary Light grey line
Provincial boundary Dark grey line
Wildfire locations Light red polygon with a red border, or a red point
Number of days with Air Quality Health Index value ≥ 7
1 to 5 days Small yellow ochre circle
6 to 10 days Medium deep orange circle
11 to 19 days Large bright red circle
20+ days Extra-large brown circle

Data Table 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data Table 2. The information is grouped by Air quality station (appearing as row headers), Total number of days with Air Quality Health Index value ≥ 7 (appearing as column headers).
Air quality station Total number of days with Air Quality Health Index value ≥ 7
Castlegar 30
Central Fraser Valley 8
Central Okanagan 18
Comox 7
Courtenay 7
Duncan 5
Eastern Fraser Valley 11
Fort St. John 18
Kamloops 14
Metro Vancouver - NE 7
Metro Vancouver - NW 8
Metro Vancouver - SE 9
Metro Vancouver - SW 9
Nanaimo / Parksville 4
North Okanagan 15
Prince George 32
Quesnel 26
Smithers 5
South Okanagan 18
Squamish 8
Terrace 1
Victoria / Saanich 6
West Shore 6
Whistler 11
Williams Lake 20

Data Table 2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data 2. The information is grouped by Code (appearing as row headers), Census division, Total fires, 2018 fire season and Total area burned, 2018 fire season, calculated using number and hectares units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Code Census division Total fires, 2018 fire season Total area burned, 2018 fire season
number hectares
59 British Columbia 2,115 1,354,300
5901 East Kootenay 97 23,316
5903 Central Kootenay 138 28,616
5905 Kootenay Boundary 58 1,046
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen 94 38,405
5909 Fraser Valley 51 7,285
5915 Greater Vancouver 5 16
5917 Capital 8 86
5919 Cowichan Valley 11 7
5921 Nanaimo 22 209
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot 9 43
5924 Strathcona 68 9,697
5926 Comox Valley 9 1
5927 Powell River 9 89
5929 Sunshine Coast 7 0
5931 Squamish-Lillooet 45 1,392
5933 Thompson-Nicola 231 16,872
5935 Central Okanagan 34 1,849
5937 North Okanagan 62 3,650
5939 Columbia-Shuswap 193 4,676
5941 Cariboo 306 204,699
5943 Mount Waddington 69 33,392
5945 Central Coast 7 1
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte 4 7
5949 Kitimat-Stikine 63 146,202
5951 Bulkley-Nechako 201 454,798
5953 Fraser-Fort George 106 13,900
5955 Peace River 99 58,270
5957 Stikine 25 272,560
5959 Northern Rockies 84 33,216

Map 2 PDF version


Table 1
Number of fires, total area burned and population and age groupings, by census division, British Columbia
Table summary
This table displays the results of Number of fires. The information is grouped by Code (appearing as row headers), Census divisions, 2018 Fire season, Age groupings, 2016 Census, Total fires, Total area burned, Total population, 0 to 14, 15 to 64, 65 and older and 85 and older, calculated using number, hectares and percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Code Census divisions 2018 Fire season Age groupings, 2016 Census
Total fires Total area burned Total population 0 to 14 15 to 64 65 and older 85 and older
number hectares number percent
59 British Columbia 2,115 1,354,300 4,648,055 14.9 66.9 18.3 2.3
5901 East Kootenay 97 23,316 60,440 15.9 64.5 19.6 2.1
5903 Central Kootenay 138 28,616 59,520 14.1 62.4 23.5 2.6
5905 Kootenay Boundary 58 1,046 31,445 13.7 60.9 25.4 3.1
5907 Okanagan-Similkameen 94 38,405 83,025 11.5 57.4 31.0 4.4
5909 Fraser Valley 51 7,285 295,935 18.1 63.9 18.0 2.4
5915 Greater Vancouver 5 16 2,463,430 14.7 69.6 15.7 2.1
5917 Capital 8 86 383,360 13.0 65.3 21.7 3.3
5919 Cowichan Valley 11 7 83,735 14.7 61.3 24.0 2.8
5921 Nanaimo 22 209 155,700 12.8 60.1 27.0 3.4
5923 Alberni-Clayoquot 9 43 30,980 15.3 62.9 21.8 2.4
5924 Strathcona 68 9,697 44,675 15.0 63.2 21.8 2.0
5926 Comox Valley 9 1 66,530 13.8 60.5 25.6 3.0
5927 Powell River 9 89 20,070 12.7 59.6 27.7 3.1
5929 Sunshine Coast 7 0 29,970 11.8 58.6 29.6 3.4
5931 Squamish-Lillooet 45 1,392 42,665 17.3 72.1 10.6 0.9
5933 Thompson-Nicola 231 16,872 132,665 15.0 64.9 20.1 2.2
5935 Central Okanagan 34 1,849 194,880 14.2 64.5 21.4 3.0
5937 North Okanagan 62 3,650 84,355 14.5 61.2 24.3 3.1
5939 Columbia-Shuswap 193 4,676 51,370 13.7 61.9 24.4 2.7
5941 Cariboo 306 204,699 61,990 15.4 63.8 20.8 1.9
5943 Mount Waddington 69 33,392 11,035 18.1 65.7 16.2 0.9
5945 Central Coast 7 1 3,320 20.3 64.6 15.1 1.2
5947 Skeena-Queen Charlotte 4 7 18,135 18.1 67.1 14.8 1.4
5949 Kitimat-Stikine 63 146,202 37,365 18.5 66.6 14.9 1.3
5951 Bulkley-Nechako 201 454,798 37,900 19.2 65.9 14.9 1.5
5953 Fraser-Fort George 106 13,900 94,510 17.4 68.3 14.3 1.3
5955 Peace River 99 58,270 62,940 21.3 68.4 10.3 1.0
5957 Stikine 25 272,560 740 12.8 66.2 20.3 0.7
5959 Northern Rockies 84 33,216 5,395 20.9 72.1 7.0 0.4

Note to readers

This article presents socio-economic information related to the 2018 forest fires in British Columbia, including costs associated with fire suppression and potential impacts of these fires on human health, recreation, as well as other industries.

Thematic maps display the location of the 2018 forest fires, the location of population centres, as well as the number of days during the fire season that the air quality health index (AQHI) was rated 7 or higher.

Fire statistics on the number of fires and area burned were taken from the BC Wildfire Service and the National Forestry Database (B.C. FLNRORD, 2019a; National Forestry Database, 2019). Fire perimeters, sizes and locations for the maps were taken from the BC Wildfire Service (B.C. FLNRORD, 2019a,b). These data cover the 2018 fire season from April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019.

AQHI observations at stations in British Columbia for the fire season (April to September 2018), were taken from data files produced by Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018). The AQHI is calculated based on the relative risks of a combination of common air pollutants known to harm human health, including ground-level ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide.

AQHI values of 1 to 3 are considered low health risk. Values of 4 to 6 are considered moderate health risk. Values of 7 to 10 are considered high health risk and values above 10 are considered very high health risk.

The AQHI also provides health messages for the various levels of the AQHI. It recommends that at risk populations including children, the elderly and those with heart or breathing problems reduce strenuous outdoor activities when the AQHI is rated high risk and that they avoid these activities when it is rated very high risk. It recommends that the general public consider reducing or rescheduling activities when the AQHI is rated high risk and that they reduce these activities when it is rated very high risk, particularly if they experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation (Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2015).

References

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British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD), BC Wildfire Service, n.d., Wildfire Averages, https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/safety/wildfire-status/about-bcws/wildfire-statistics/wildfire-averages (accessed April 17, 2019).

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD), BC Wildfire Service, 2019a, “Fire Incident Locations – Historical,” British Columbia Data Catalogue, https://catalogue.data.gov.bc.ca/dataset/fire-incident-locations-historical (accessed May 6, 2019).

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD), BC Wildfire Service, 2019b, “Fire Perimeters – Historical,” British Columbia Data Catalogue, https://catalogue.data.gov.bc.ca/dataset/fire-perimeters-historical (accessed May 6, 2019).

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD), 2018a, Impacts of the 2017 Fires on Timber Supply in the Cariboo Region, https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/forestry/stewardship/forest-analysis-inventory/impacts_2017_fires.pdf (accessed April 1, 2019).

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development (FLNRORD), 2018b, Post-Natural Disturbance Forest Retention Guidance: 2017 Wildfires, https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/forestry/2017_fire_report_revised.pdf (accessed January 31, 2019).

Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2018, “Air Quality Health Index Forecast,” Open Government,” https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/a563e47d-6eb9-4f7f-933c-222ae49fe57f (accessed October 9, 2018).

Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2015, “Understanding Air Quality Health Index messages,” Air Quality, https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/air-quality-health-index/understanding-messages.html (accessed September 28, 2018).

Kennison K.R., et al., 2009, “Effect of timing and duration of grapevine exposure to smoke on the composition and sensory properties of wine,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 15, pp. 228-237.

Larose Research and Strategy, 2018, Impacts of the 2017 Wildfires on Cariboo Chilcotin Coast Tourism Businesses: Summary of Economic Impacts, Issues, and Potential Mitigation Measures, Cariboo Chilcotin Coast Tourism Association, http://industry.landwithoutlimits.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CCCTA-Wildfire-Impacts-Report-FINAL-6-March.pdf (accessed March 29, 2019).

National Forestry Database, 2019, Forest area burned and number of forest fires, www.nfdp.ccfm.org/en/data/fires.php (April 16, 2019).

Natural Resources Canada, 2018, State of Canada’s Forests, www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/report/16496 (accessed January 4, 2019).

Peak Solutions Consulting, 2018, Economic Impact of 2017 Wildfires on Tourism in the Kootenay Rockies Tourism Region: Final, Kootenay Rockies Tourism Association, https://www.krtourism.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Wildfire-Recovery-Survey-2018.pdf (accessed March 29, 2019).

Statistics Canada, 2018a, Table 45-10-0030-01 Participation in outdoor activities in the past 12 months by age group, sex, current employment status and perceived health, Canada, provinces and regions, https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=4510003001 (accessed January 31, 2019).

Statistics Canada, 2018b, Census Profile, 2016 Census, https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E&TABID=1 (accessed January 31, 2019).

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