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Human Activity and the Environment 2011: Economy and the environment , presents information on the relationship between Canada's economy and the environment. Statistics on Canada's environment are first looked at from an international perspective and are then presented for the following main themes: natural wealth, natural resource stocks, flows of energy and materials and environmental protection efforts.
- In 2009, Canada's natural wealth—the dollar value of selected natural resource stocks and land—stood at $3 trillion.
- From 2005 to 2009, natural wealth per capita averaged about $89,000; over the same period produced wealth stood at $121,000 per capita.
Natural resource stocks
- Stocks of crude bitumen increased eight-fold between 1990 and 2008.
- From 1971 to 2004, water yield decreased an average of 3.5 km3 per year in Southern Canada, which is equivalent to an overall loss of 8.5% of the water yield over this time period.
- Settled areas in Canada grew by 14.1% between 2001 and 2006, moving from 14,040 km2 to 16,020 km2.
Energy use and greenhouse gases (GHG)
- Between 1990 and 2007, GHG emissions resulting from household consumption increased 15% to 329 megatonnes. Households accounted for 45% of Canadian GHG emissions in 2007.
Environmental protection efforts
- In 2011, 9.8% of Canada's land and freshwater area was considered protected.
- The largest proportions of land and freshwater areas protected are found in the North.
- In 2008, Canadians sent 777 kg of waste per capita for disposal on average, representing a rise of 1.1% over 2002.
- Waste diversion and recycling activities have been on the rise in Canada. Nationally, diversion rates rose from 21.6% in 2002 to 24.7% in 2008.
- Businesses operating in Canada spent $9.1 billion in 2008 to protect the environment, up 5.3% from 2006.
- Of households with thermostats almost half (49%) had programmable ones in 2009. Slightly more than six out of ten households (61%) that had a thermostat lowered the temperature during the winter while they slept.
- Sixty-three percent of Canadian households had a low-flow shower head in 2009 while 42% had a low-volume toilet.