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Environment Canada, 2011, Climate Trends and Variations, (accessed June 15, 2011).
Global Climate Observing System, 2011, Global Climate Observing System, (accessed June 1, 2011).
Global Observing Systems Information Center, n.d. (no date), GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECV) Data & Information Access Matrix, (accessed June 20, 2011).
Environment Canada, 2011, Climate Trends and Variations, (accessed June 15, 2011).
Environment Canada, 2010, Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data (AHCCD), (accessed June 20, 2011).
É. Mekis and L.A. Vincent, 2011, "An Overview of the Second Generation Adjusted Daily Precipitation Dataset for Trend Analysis in Canada," Atmosphere-Ocean, Vol. 49, no. 2, pages 163 to 177.
The Nipher snow gauge is used to measure snowfall and is much larger than a standard rain gauge or tipping bucket. The Nipher snow gauge provides a more accurate snow water equivalence estimate than standard snow ruler measurements. Environment Canada, 2007, Nipher Snow Gauge, (accessed August 17, 2011).
The World Meteorological Organization recommends that countries prepare 30-year climate normals for the periods ending in 1930, 1960 and 1990. See: Environment Canada, 2011, Calculation of the 1971 to 2000 Climate Normals for Canada, (accessed June 15, 2011).
L.S. Gandin, 1965, Objective Analysis of Meteorological Fields (Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Trans.) Jerusalem, Israel: S. Monsoon (original work published in 1963).
To enquire about the statistical analysis used in this article, contact the information officer (613-951-0297;, Environment Accounts and Statistics Division.
Statistically significant linear trends to the 95% confidence interval or above.
The precipitation data used in this study is based on percentage above or below the normal. Therefore, 'percentage points' are used to describe the change from one period to the next, as this is the unit used to describe the arithmetic difference between two percentages.
Energy resources (natural gas, crude oil, crude bitumen and coal), mineral resources (gold, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, iron, molybdenum, uranium, potash and diamonds) and timber. Other natural resource stocks, including water and fish, are not currently valued due to data limitations.
Statistics Canada, CANSIM tables 378-0005 and 051-0001 (accessed September 20, 2011).
For details, see: Statistics Canada, 2011, National balance sheet accounts, (accessed July 7, 2011).
Produced assets include residential and non-residential structures, machinery and equipment, consumer durables and inventories.
For more information, see: P. Cross, 2008, "The role of natural resources in Canada's economy," Canadian Economic Observer, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-010-X, Vol. 21, no. 11.
A notable exception is the price of natural gas, which largely depends on domestic markets as much of natural gas is transported through pipelines.
For details, see: S. Brown, R. Virmani and R. Alm, 2008, "Crude Awakening: Behind the Surge in Oil Prices," Economic Letters, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Vol. 3, no. 5, (accessed July 7, 2011).
In 2010, the price per m3 of heavy crude oil, light and medium crude oil and crude bitumen were $396, $470 and $372 respectively. See Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, n.d. (no date), Oil Prices – 2010, (accessed June 20, 2011).
Crude oil and crude bitumen reserves valued in this study include 'known reserves under active development.'
In 2006, estimates of oil sands reserves under active development doubled as compared to 2005. See Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, 2007, Alberta's Energy Reserves 2006 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2007-2016, Report no. ST 98-2007, table 2.1, (accessed June 15, 2011).
Leeward refers to an area located on or towards the side sheltered from the wind or rain.
Windward refers to an area exposed to both wind and rain.
Settlements can be defined as tracts of land where humans have altered the physical environment by constructing residential, commercial and institutional buildings and the associated infrastructure of roads and public spaces. Settlements include cities, towns, villages and other dense concentrations of human population. For more information on settlements please see: N. Hofmann, A. Elgarawany, H. Larocque, G. Filoso and T. Dennis, 2010, "Introducing a New Concept and Methodology for Delineating Settlement Boundaries: A Research Project on Canadian Settlements," Environment Accounts and Statistics Analytical and Technical Paper Series, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 16-001-M, no. 11.
Detailed primary industry data is not available at the ecoregion level; therefore labour force statistics have been used at the provincial level to support sub-industry fluctuations in British Columbia.
Canadian Lung Association, 2010, Heating methods and open burning, (accessed July 21, 2011).
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