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The World Glacier Monitoring Service expresses net mass balance reported annually as water equivalence. 1 mm water equivalent/year = 1 kg/m2/year.
M. Zemp, I. Gärtner-Roer, W. Haeberli, M. Hoelzle and F. Paul, 2009, "Glaciers and Ice Caps," Assessment of the Status of the Development of the Standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables, T6, Global Terrestrial Observing System, Rome.
M. Zemp, M. Hoelzle and W. Haeberli, 2009, "Six decades of glacier mass-balance observations: a review of the worldwide monitoring network," Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 50, Issue 50, pages 101 to 111.
Global Climate Observing System, 2010, Global Climate Observing System, (accessed September 16, 2010).
Global Terrestrial Observing System, 2010, "Glacier mass balance," Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Sites, (accessed September 16, 2010).
World Glacier Monitoring Service, 2010, Welcome to the World Glacier Monitoring Service, (accessed September 16, 2010).
World Glacier Monitoring Service, 2009, Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin No. 10 (2006-2007), W. Haeberli, I. Gärtner-Roer, M. Hoelzle, F. Paul and M. Zemp (eds.), ICSU(WDS)/IUGG(IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO, World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich.
For more information related to Sen’s method, please see: P.K. Sen, 1968, "Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall’s tau," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 63, pages 1379 to 1389.
To enquire about the statistical analysis used in this article, contact the Information Officer (613-951-0297;, Environment Accounts and Statistics Division.
C.S.L. Ommanney, 2002, "History of Glacier Investigations in Canada," pages J27 to J82 in R.S. Williams Jr. and J.G. Ferrigno (eds.), Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World – Glaciers of North America – Glaciers of Canada, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-J-I.
M.N. Demuth, V. Pinard, A. Pietroniro, B. Luckman, C. Hopkinson, P. Dornes, and L. Comeau, 2008, "Recent and past-century variations in the glacier resources of the Canadian Rocky Mountains: Nelson River system," Terra Glacialis Special Issue: Mountain glaciers and climate changes of the last century, pages 27 to 52.
United Nations Environment Program, World Glacier Monitoring Services, 2008, Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures.
Government of Canada, 2007, Species at Risk Public Registry, (accessed July 9, 2010).