Income and Expenditure Accounts Technical Series

    Human Resource Module of the Tourism Satellite Account - A Pilot Study for Ontario


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    • Ontario is the first province to test the Human Resource Module (HRM) at a regional level as a pilot study. The methodology used is very similar to the one used for the HRM at the national level because the same data sources are available at both the national and provincial level. The estimates required more editing and suppressions for confidentiality reasons than at the national level, but this did not compromise the quality of findings.
    • Tourism industries in the HRM include five industry groups which are defined as follows: transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services, recreation and entertainment and travel services. Generally speaking, an industry is considered a tourism industry if it would cease to exist, or continue to exist only at a significantly reduced level of activity, as a direct result of the absence of tourism.
    • The HRM provides the following three main human resource statistics for the tourism sector as a whole and for each tourism industry group: jobs, hours and compensation. These statistics are also available by gender, by work status, by age group, by immigrant status and by occupation.
    • All statistics provided by the HRM are related to the production of tourism industries. For example, statistics concerning jobs are about the number of jobs required to produce commodities in tourism industries whether the commodities produced were consumed by visitors or by local residents.
    • With this pilot study, estimates are available annually for Ontario over a 12 year period, from 1997 to 2008.
    • In 2008, the tourism sector in Ontario accounted for 606 thousand jobs or 8.9% of all jobs in Ontario. These jobs are the number of jobs in total in tourism industries.
    • The food and beverage services industry group was the largest employer among tourism industries with 333 thousand jobs. The second largest employer was recreation and entertainment industries with 107 thousand jobs, followed by transportation with 83 thousand jobs. The accommodation industry group was responsible for 66 thousand jobs while travel services provided 18 thousand jobs.
    • Similar to Canada, working hours were shorter in tourism industries in Ontario (29.5 hours per week) compared to jobs economy-wide (33.4 hours) in 2008. The shorter work week is explained partly by the higher proportion of part-time jobs in tourism.
    • Hourly compensation was higher in tourism industries in Ontario compared to tourism industries nationally.
    • The ten most prevalent occupational groups accounted for 62.7% of all employee jobs in tourism industries in Ontario. Nine out of ten jobs in the top five occupations of the tourism sector were in food and beverage services.
    • Forty percent of jobs in tourism (219 thousand jobs) were held by teenagers or young adults in Ontario. Three out of four young adults worked in food and beverage services industries and almost seven out of ten worked part-time.
    • Older workers, aged 45 years or more, were the second largest group of workers (150 thousand jobs) in tourism in Ontario. Eight out of ten older workers worked full-time. They were employed more evenly across the different tourism industry groups than teenagers or young adults. Older employees in tourism industries were paid almost twice as much as young adults.
    • Immigrants were an important source of labour for tourism industries in Ontario holding 27.3% or 152 thousand jobs.
    • Immigrants working in Ontario's tourism sector were older than other workers: about four out of ten immigrants were aged 45 years or more. Immigrants worked longer hours and earned lower wages.
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