Balakrishnan (2008) showed that, in the years from 1993 to 2004,
firms with 0 to 19 employees accounted for roughly 40%
of job reallocation, the sum of gross job creation and gross job destruction.
See, for example, Acs and Audretsch (1990).
Baldwin and Gellatly (2003) and Nooteboom (1994).
For example, Baldwin et al. (2002) compared the employment,
shipments, and value-added shares of small, medium-sized, and large firms
in the manufacturing industry, and Leung et al. (2008) presented employment
shares by firm size for the non-agricultural, non-financial portion of the
corporate sector in the two countries.
Owner-occupied housing is excluded from the business
sector because it is produced by the household sector.
See, for example, Beck et al. (2003).
See, for example, Almon and Tang (2009) and Leung et al. (2008).
The next step would be to develop labour input measures by firm size for the
Benefits are not allocated by means
of payroll shares. In both Kobe (2007) and Leung et al. (2011), supplementary
data sources were used to allocate the legislated and non-legislated portions
of supplementary labour income to firm-size classes. The methodology and data
sources employed in Leung et al. (2011) to allocate supplementary labour income
are also used in this paper.
GDP-by-size estimates are calculated by using the same revenue-size categories
as those presented in the IRS tables. Adjusting the size categories by industry-specific
purchasing power parities does not substantially change the results.
More specifically, the estimates
are first benchmarked to Rispoli (2009a,b,c), who generated
value-added by component for unincorporated businesses and for corporations.
These, in turn, are benchmarked to the Input-Output Accounts.
The estimate of large-sized unincorporated enterprises
was based on the aggregation of GDP items (labour income, interest payments,
taxes paid, depreciation, and net income) from the redesigned T1 2008 tax
data for unincorporated enterprises. Data on large-sized unincorporated enterprises
are included mostly under partnerships. The redesign involved separating enterprises
in the 2008 T1 income tax returns into sole proprietorships
and partnerships. A database on partnerships linking the individual T1 enterprises
involved in partnerships to the other partnerships was developed by using
T5013 (Statement of Partnership Income) information or other partnership
information as reported on the T1 income tax returns. At present, these
data are not available for years prior to 2008. As a consequence, the
estimate of large-sized unincorporated enterprises could not be drawn for
For a detailed
description of the allocation of indirect taxes on products in the United
States, see Horowitz and Planting (2009).
It is found that 75% of the GST/HST
collected by firms in the trade industry is collected by retailers and that 25%
is collected by wholesalers.
SNA profits are based on operating profits, profits earned as
a result of production, rather than on total profits.
As in Leung et al. (2011), this
paper uses the GIFI and T4 files prepared by the Enterprise Statistics
Division and Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, respectively, at Statistics
Moreover, the industry
of a multi-unit firm is determined by means of payroll in the SUSB, the same
approach as in Leung et al. (2011).
See Internal Revenue Service (2010) for more details.
Businesses file unconsolidated
returns in Canada. For the purposes of this analysis, the Business Register
is used to aggregate these unconsolidated returns to the ultimate parent enterprise
group. In the process of aggregating unconsolidated returns, care was taken
to omit items in the income statement that would lead to double counting in
revenues and profits.
The business sector excludes agriculture and owner-occupied housing.
Since the collection of net indirect taxes on products
in Canada is evenly distributed between small and large businesses, the shares
of GDP at market prices by business size are not substantially different from
those at basic prices. Leung et al. (2011) reported that small businesses
in Canada generated 54.3% of business-sector GDP at basic prices.