Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series

The Earnings Advantage of Landed Immigrants Who Were Previously Temporary Residents in Canada


Warning View the most recent version.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.

Aydemir, A. 2003. “Effects of business cycles on the labour market participation and employment rate assimilation of immigrants.” In Canadian Immigration Policy for the 21st Century, ed. C. Beach, A. Green, and J. Reitz., p. 373–412. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Aydemir, A., and M. Skuterud. 2005. “Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada’s immigrant cohorts: 1966–2000.” Canadian Journal of Economics 38 (2): 641–672.

Bonikowska, A., F. Hou, and G. Picot. 2015. Which Human Capital Characteristics Best Predict the Earnings of Economic Immigrants? Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, no. 368. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Chiswick, B., Y. Cohen, and T. Zach. 1997. “The labor market status of immigrants: Effects of the unemployment rate at arrival and duration of residence.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50 (2): 289–303.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2008. Facts and Figures 2007. Downloaded from on December 18, 2008.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2010. Evaluation of the Federal Skilled Worker Program. Report no. Ci4-54/2010E-PDF. Available at:

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2013a. Facts and Figures 2012. Downloaded from on January 28, 2013.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2013b “Life in Canada: A profile of pathways to permanent residence.” National Settlement Conference, November 13 to 15. Research and Evaluation Branch. Presentation.

Ferrer, A., G. Picot, and C. Riddell. 2014. “New directions in immigration policy: Canada’s evolving approach to the selection of economic immigrants.” International Migration Review 48 (3): 846–867.

Foster, J. 2012. “Making temporary permanent: The silent transformation of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program.” Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society 19: 22–46.

Goldmann, G., A. Sweetman, and C. Warman. 2009. The Economic Return on New Immigrants’ Human Capital: The Impact of Occupational Matching. Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network Working Paper no. 21.

Green, D.A., and C. Worswick. 2010. “Entry earnings of immigrant men in Canada: The roles of labour market entry effects and returns to foreign experience.” In Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment, ed. T. McDonald, E. Ruddick, A. Sweetman and C. Worswick, p. 77–110. Queen's Policy Studies Series, no. 67. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Hao, L. 2013. “Admission-group salary differentials in the United States: The significance of the labour-market institutional selection of high-skilled workers.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39 (8): 1337–1360.

Hawthorne, L., and A. To. 2014. “Australian employer response to the study-migration pathway: The quantitative evidence 2007-2011.” International Migration 52 (3): 99–115.

Hou, F. 2013. “Immigrant entry earnings over the past quarter-century: The roles of changing characteristics and returns to skills.” Canadian Studies in Population 40 (3-4): 149–163.

Hunt, J. 2011. “Which immigrants are most innovative and entrepreneurial? Distinctions by entry visa.” Journal of Labour Economics 29 (3): 417–457.

Koslowski, R. 2014. “Selective migration policy models and changing realities of implementation.” International Migration 52 (3): 26–39.

Lofstrom, M., and J. Hayes. 2011. H-1Bs: How Do They Stack Up to US Born Workers? Discussion Paper no. 6259. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour. Available at:

Lowell, L., and J. Avato. 2014. “The wages of skilled temporary migrants: Effects of visa pathways and job portability.” International Migration 52 (3): 85–98.

Lu, Y., and F. Hou. 2015. “Study and work: What makes international students successful immigrants in the Canadian labour market?” In Onward and Upward Mobilities: International Students, Their Families and Structuring Institutions, ed. A.H. Kim, and M.-J. Kwak.Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Forthcoming.

Mithas, S., and H.C. Lucas Jr. 2010. “Are foreign IT workers cheaper? U.S. visa policies and compensation of information technology professionals.” Management Science 56 (5): 745–765.

Oreopoulos, P. 2011. “Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? A field experiment with thirteen thousand resumes.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (4): 148–171.

Pang, M. 2013. Temporary Foreign Workers. Background Paper no. 2013-11-E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament.

Picot, G., and F. Hou. 2009. Immigrant Characteristics, the IT Bust, and Their Effect on Entry Earnings of Immigrants. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, no. 315. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Sweetman, A., and C. Warman. 2010. “Canada’s temporary foreign workers programs.” Canadian Issues (Spring): 19–24.

Sweetman, A., and C. Warman. 2014. “Former temporary foreign workers and international students as sources of permanent immigration.” Canadian Public Policy 40 (4): 392–407.

Thomas, D. 2010. “Foreign nationals working temporarily in Canada.” Canadian Social Trends 90 (June): 34–48. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-008-X.

Vineberg, R. 2010. “Temporary migration and labour market responsiveness in the Prairie provinces.” Canadian Issues (Spring): 37–41.

Warman, C. 2010. “The returns of foreign credentials of temporary foreign workers and recently landed immigrants in Canada.” In Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment, ed. T. McDonald, E. Ruddick, A. Sweetman, and C. Worswick, p. 209–233. Queen’s Policy Studies Series. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Report a problem on this page

Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for?

Please contact us and let us know how we can help you.

Privacy notice

Date modified: