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Abada, T., F. Hou, and Y. Lu. 2011. Choice or Necessity: Do Immigrants and Their Children Choose Self-employment for the Same Reasons? Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa, Ontario. Analytical Studies Research Paper Series. No. 342.

Acs, Z.J., D.B. Audretsch, and D.S. Evans. 1994. Why does the self-employment rate vary across countries and over time? London, U.K. Centre for Economic Policy Research. Discussion Paper no. 871.

Aldrich, H., and P. Kim 2007. "A life course perspective on occupational inheritance: Self-employed parents and their children." Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Vol. 25. p. 33-82.

Aldrich, H., L.A. Renzulli, and N. Langton. 1998. "Passing on privilege: Resources provided by self-employed parents to their self-employed children." Research in stratification and mobility. K. Leicht (ed.). Greenwich, Connecticut. JAI Press. Vol. 16. p. 291–317.

Andersson, L., and M. Hammarstedt. 2010. "Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations." Small Business Economics. Vol. 34. p. 261–276.

Andersson, P., and E. Wadensjö. 2004. Why Do Self-Employed Immigrants in Denmark and Sweden Have Such Low Incomes? Bonn, Germany. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Paper no. 1280. (accessed October 1, 2011).

Apitzsch, U. 2005. "The chances of the second generation in families of migrant entrepreneurs: Quality of life development as a biographical process." Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales. Vol. 21. No. 3. p. 83-94.

Arum, R., and W. Mueller. 2004. "The reemergence of self-employment: Comparative findings and empirical propositions." The Reemergence of Self-employment. R. Arum and W. Mueller (eds.). Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University Press. p. 426-454.

Baldwin, J.R., and J. Chowhan. 2003. The impact of self-employment on labour-productivity growth: A Canada and United States comparison. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0027M. Ottawa, Ontario. Economic Analysis Research Paper Series. No. 16.

Beaudry, P., and D.A. Green. 2000. "Cohort patterns in Canadian earnings: Assessing the role of skill premia in inequality trends." Canadian Journal of Economics. Vol. 33. No. 4. p. 907-936.

Blanchflower, D. 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries." Labour Economics. Vol. 7. p. 471-505.

Bonikowska, A., and F. Hou. 2010. "Reversal of Fortunes or Continued Success? Cohort Differences in Education and Earnings among Children of Immigrants." International Migration Review. Vol. 44. No. 2. p. 320-353.

Borjas, J. 1986. "The self-employment experience of immigrants."Journal of Human Resources. Vol. 21. p. 485-506.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2010. Facts and Figures: Immigration Overview: Permanent and Temporary Residents 2009. Ottawa, Ontario. Research and Evaluation Branch. No. Ci1-8/2009E-PDF.

Constant, A., and K.F. Zimmerman. 2006. "The making of entrepreneurs in Germany: Are native men and immigrants alike?" Small Business Economics. Vol. 26. p. 279-300.

Dunbar, G., and C. Fu. 2008. Income Illusion: Tax Evasion in Canada. Burnaby, B.C. Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.

Dunn, T., and D. Holtz-Eakin. 2000. "Financial capital, human capital, and the transition to self-employment: Evidence from intergenerational links." Journal of Labor Economics. Vol. 18. No. 2. p. 282–305.

Fairlie, R.W. 1999. "The absence of the African-American owned businesses: An analysis of the dynamics of self-employment." Journal of Labor Economics. Vol. 17. p. 80–108.

Fairlie, R.W., and B.D. Meyer. 1996. "Ethnic and racial self-employment differences and possible explanations." Journal of Human Resources. Vol. 31. p. 757-793.

Fairlie, R.W., and B.D. Meyer. 2003. "The effect of immigration on native self-employment." Journal of Labor Economics. Vol. 21. No. 3. p. 619-650.

Frenette, M. 2004. "Do the falling earnings of immigrants apply to self-employed immigrants?" Labour. Vol. 18. No. 2. p. 207-232.

Froschauer, K. 2001. "East Asian and European entrepreneur immigrants in British Columbia, Canada: post-migration conduct and pre-migration context." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27. No. 2. p. 225-240.

Gauthier, J., and R. Roy. 1997. Diverging trends in self-employment in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. Applied Research Branch, Human Resources Development Canada. Working Paper no. R-97-13E.

Georgarakos, D., and K. Tatsiramos. 2009. "Entrepreneurship and survival dynamics of immigrants to the U.S. and their descendants." Labour Economics. Vol. 16. p. 161-170.

Gold, S., I. Light, and M.F. Johnston. 2006. "The second generation and self employment." Migration Information Source. October 1.

Goldin, C. 2006. "The quiet revolution that transformed women's employment, education, and family." AEA Papers and Proceedings. Vol. 96. No. 2. p. 1-21.

Goldscheider, C., and F.E. Kobrin. 1980. "Ethnic continuity and the process of self-employment." Ethnicity. Vol. 7. p. 256-278.

Hammarstedt, M. 2001. "Immigrant self-employment in Sweden – its variation and some possible determinants." Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. Vol. 13. p. 147–161.

Hou, F. 2009. "Immigrants working with co-ethnics: Who are they and how do they fare?" International Migration. Vol. 47. No. 2. p. 69-100.

Hou, F., and S. Wang. 2011. "Immigrants in self-employment." Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 23. No. 3. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-X..

Hout, M., and H. Rosen 2000. "Self-employment, family background, and race." Journal of Human Resources. Vol. 35. No. 4. p. 670–691.

Kamhi, N., and D. Leung. 2005. Recent developments in self-employment in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. Bank of Canada. Working Paper no. 2005-8.

Kasinitz, P., J.H. Mollenkopf, M.C. Waters, and J. Holdaway. 2008. Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age. New York. Russell Sage Foundation.

Katz, L.F., and D.H. Autor. 1999. "Changes in the Wage Structure and Earnings Inequality." Handbook of Labor Economics. O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.). New York. Elsevier. Vol. 3A. p. 1463-1555.

Kloosterman, R., J. van der Leun, and J. Rath. 1999. "Mixed embeddedness: (In)formal economic activities and immigrant businesses in the Netherlands." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol. 23. p. 252-266.

Kuhn, P., and H. Schuetze. 2001. "Self-employment dynamics and self-employment trends: A study of Canadian men and women, 1982-1998." Canadian Journal of Economics. Vol. 34. No. 3. p. 760-784.

LaRochelle-Côté, S. 2010. "Self-employment in the downturn." Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 11. No. 3. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-X.

Li, P.S. 1997. "Self-employment among visible minority immigrants, white immigrants, and native-born persons in secondary and tertiary industries of Canada." Canadian Journal of Regional Science. Vol. 20. No. 1-2. p. 103-118.

Li, P.S. 2001. "Immigrants' propensity to self-employment: Evidence from Canada." International Migration Review. Vol. 35. No. 4. p. 1106-1128.

Lin, Z., J. Yates, and G. Picot. 1999. Rising Self-employment in the Midst of High Unemployment: An Empirical Analysis of Recent Development in Canada. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa, Ontario. Analytical Studies Research Paper Series. No. 133.

Lofstrom, M. 2002. "Labor market assimilation and the self-employment decision of immigrant entrepreneurs." Journal of Population Economics. Vol. 15. No. 1. p. 83-114.

McLean, C. 2009. "Handing Off the Business." The Globe and Mail. December 10.

Park, J., and D. Myers. 2010. "Intergenerational mobility in the post-1965 immigration era: estimates by an immigrant generation cohort method." Demography. Vol. 47. No. 2. p. 389-392.

Parker, S. 2004. The Economics of Self-employment and Entrepreneurship. Cambridge, U.K. Cambridge University Press.

Picot, G., and F. Hou. 2010. "Seeking success in Canada and the United States: Labour market outcomes among the children of immigrants." Equal Opportunities: The Labour Market Integration of the Children of Immigrants. Paris. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. OECD Publishing. Chapter 3. p. 79-113.

Portes, A., and S. Shafer. 2007. "Revisiting the Enclave Hypothesis: Miami Twenty Five Years Later." Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Vol. 25. p. 157-190.

Portes, A., and M. Zhou. 1996. "Self-employment and the earnings of immigrants." American Sociological Review. Vol. 61. No. 2. p. 219-230.

Sanders, J., and V. Nee 1996. "Immigrant self-employment: The family as social capital and the value of human capital." American Sociological Review. Vol. 61. No. 2. p. 231-249.

Schuetze, H.J. 2002a. "Taxes, economic conditions and recent trends in male self-employment: A Canada-US comparison." Labour Economics. Vol. 7. p. 507-544.

Schuetze, H.J. 2002b. "Profiles of tax non-compliance among the self-employed in Canada: 1969 to 1992." Canadian Public Policy. Vol. 28. No. 2. p. 219-238.

Schuetze, H.J. 2005. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants to Canada. Vancouver, British Columbia. Vancouver Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis. RIIM Working Paper Series. Paper no. 05-24.

Schuetze, H.J. 2010. "Immigration policy and the self-employment experience of immigrants to Canada." Canadian Immigration: Economic Evidence for a Dynamic Policy Environment. T. McDonald, E. Ruddick, A. Sweetman, and C. Worswick (eds.). Montreal, Quebec. McGill-Queen's University Press. Chapter 6. p. 147-181.

Smith, J. 2003. "Assimilation across the Latino generations." AEA Papers and Proceedings. Vol. 93. p. 315-319.

Statistics Canada. 1997. Labour Force Update: The Self-Employed. Vol. 1. No. 3. Catalogue No. 71-005-X.

Statistics Canada. 2010. 2006 Census Dictionary. Catalogue no. 92-566-X. (accessed June 1, 2010).

Uppal, S. 2011. "Seniors' self-employment." Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 23. No. 1. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-X.

Van Tubergen, F. 2005. "Self-employment of immigrants: A cross national study of 17 western societies." Social Forces. Vol. 84. No. 2. p. 709-732.

Yuengert, A. 1995. "Testing hypotheses of immigrant self-employment." The Journal of Human Resources . Vol. 30. No. 1. p. 194-204.

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