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Abowd, John M., and David Card. 1989. "On the covariance structure of earnings and hours changes." Econometrica. 57, 2: 411–445.

Altonji, Joseph G., and Lewis M. Segal. 1996. "Small-sample bias in GMM estimation of covariance structures." Journal of Business & Economic Statistics. 14, 3: 353–366.

Aydemir, Abdurrahman, and Mikal Skuterud. 2005. "Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada's immigrant cohorts, 1966-2000." Canadian Journal of Economics. 38, 2: 641–672.

Baker, Michael. 1997. "Growth-rate heterogeneity and the covariance structure of life-cycle earnings." Journal of Labor Economics. 15, 2: 338–375.

Baker, Michael, and Gary Solon. 2003. "Earnings dynamics and inequality among Canadian men, 1976-1992." Journal of Labor Economics. 21, 2: 289–321.

Baker, Michael, and Dwayne Benjamin. 1994. "The performance of immigrants in the Canadian labor market." Journal of Labor Economics. 12, 3: 369–405.

Beach, Charles M., Ross Finnie and David Gray. 2003. "Earnings variability and earnings instability of women and men in Canada: How do the 1990s compare to the 1980s?" Canadian Public Policy. 29, Supplement: The Linkages Between Economic Growth and Inequality: S41–S63.

Betts, Julian R., and Magnus Lof strom. 2000. "The educational attainment of immigrants." In Issues in the Economics of Immigration. George J. Borjas (ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Browning, Martin, and AnnaMaria Lusardi. 1996. "Household saving: Micro theories and micro facts." Journal of Economic Literature. 34, 4: 1797–1855.

Browning, Martin, and Thomas F. Crossley. 2001. "The life-cycle model of consumption and saving." Journal of Economic Perspectives. 15, 3: 3–21.

Chiswick, Barry Y. 1978. "The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men." Journal of Political Economy. 86, 5: 897–921.

Clark, Todd E. 1996. "Smal-sample properties of estimators of nonlinear models of covariance structure." Journal of Business & Economic Statistics. 14, 3: 367–373.

Deaton, Angus. 1997. The Analysis of Household Surveys: A Microeconometric Approach to Development Policy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dustmann, Christian, and Arthur Van Soest. 2002. "Language and the earnings of immigrants." Industrial & Labor Relations Review. 55, 3: 473–492.

Ferrer, Ana, David A. Green and W. Craig Riddell. 2006. "The effect of literacy on immigrant earnings." Journal of Human Resources. 41, 2: 380–410.

Frenette, Marc, and René Morissette. 2003. Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrant and Canadian-born Workers over the Last Two Decades. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE2003215. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Friedberg, Rachel M. 2000. "You can't take it with you? Immigrant assimilation and the portability of human capital." Journal of Labor Economics. 18, 2: 221–251.

Gottschalk, Peter, and Robert Moffitt. 1994. "The growth of earnings instability in the U.S. labor market." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 2: 217–272.

Grant, Mary L. 1999. "Evidence of new immigrant assimilation in Canada." Canadian Journal of Economics. 32, 4: 930–955.

Green, David A., and Christopher Worswick. 2004. Immigrant earnings profiles in the presence of human capital investment: Measuring cohort and macro effects. IFS Working Papers, no. W04/13. London, U.K.: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Haider, Steven J. 2001. "Earnings instability and earnings inequality of males in the United States: 1967-1991." Journal of Labor Economics. 19, 4: 799–836.

Jasso, Guillermina, Mark R. Rosenzweig and James P. Smith. 2000. "The changing skill of new immigrants to the United States: Recent trends and their determinants." In Issues in the Economics of Immigration. George J. Borjas (ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Johnston, Jack. Econometric Methods. 1984. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Moffitt, Robert A., and Peter Gottschalk. 2002. "Trends in the transitory variance of earnings in the United States." The Economic Journal. 112, 478: C68–C73.

Morissette, René, John Myles and Garnett Picot. 1994. What Is Happening to Earnings Inequality in Canada? Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE1994060. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Morissette, René, and Yuri Ostrovsky. 2005. "The instability of family earnings and family income in Canada, 1986-1991 and 1996-2001." Canadian Public Policy. 31, 3: 273–302.

Schaafsma, Joseph, and Arthur Sweetman. 2001. "Immigrant earnings: Age at immigration matters." Canadian Journal of Economics. 34, 4: 1066–1099.

Smith, James P. 2006. "Immigrants and the labor market." Journal of Labor Economics. 24, 2: 203–233.