Appendix

Warning View the most recent version.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.

Table A.1 Logistic regression and Ordinary Least Squares models predicting with university degree

  Logistic regression Ordinary Least model Squares
  Coefficient Standard error Coefficient Standard error
Intercept -1.12 6.56 0.26 0.26
Africa 0.27 0.45 0.07 0.09
Caribbean -0.51 0.32 -0.08 0.06
Latin America -0.55 0.47 -0.07 0.07
China 1.47*** 0.23 0.29*** 0.04
Philippines -1.00** 0.35 -0.18** 0.06
India 0.78*** 0.21 0.16*** 0.04
West Asia/Middle East -0.15 0.35 -0.01 0.07
Other Asia 0.41 0.45 0.09 0.09
United States -0.66* 0.31 -0.12* 0.06
United Kingdom -0.13 0.13 -0.02 0.02
Germany -0.45*** 0.11 -0.08*** 0.02
Italy 0.58** 0.18 0.11** 0.03
Portugal 0.48 0.26 0.09 0.05
Netherlands -0.03 0.22 -0.01 0.04
Other N.W.Europe -0.16 0.16 -0.02 0.03
Eastern Europe -0.25 0.29 -0.04 0.05
Other Europe 0.83*** 0.25 0.17** 0.05
Other countries -0.45 0.70 -0.08 0.13
Age 0.04*** 0.01 0.007 0.002
Female 0.36*** 0.09 0.06*** 0.01
Not living with parents -1.29* 0.50 -0.14*** 0.03
Lone mother -0 53*** 0.06 -0.08*** 0.01
Lone father -0.57 0.31 -0.09 0.04
Large urban 0.84*** 0.13 0.14*** 0.02
Small urban 0.34* 0.16 0.05* 0.02
Generation 1.5 -0.36 0.27 -0.07 0.05
Generation 1.75 -0.14 0.20 -0.02 0.04
Generation 2 -0.26 0.13 -0.05* 0.02
Mother university 1.50*** 0.22 0.28*** 0.04
Mother some postsecondary 0.80*** 0.11 0.12** 0.02
Mother high school graduation 0.52*** 0.09 0.07** 0.02
Father university 1.58*** 0.14 0.32*** 0.03
Father some postsecondary 0.63*** 0.16 0.10*** 0.03
Father high school graduation 0.55* 0.25 0.08* 0.04
E/F1 is mother tongue -0.05 0.20 0.00 0.04
E/F not mother tongue, speaking E/F with parents -0.06 0.31 0.00 0.06
Father generation education 1.71 0.93 0.34 0.18
Father generation earnings -0.25 0.63 -0.04 0.11
Proportion living in rural and small towns -0.99 0.73 -0.13 0.12

* p < 0.05

** p < 0,01

*** p < 0.001

1. English/French

Source: Statistics Canada, Ethnic Diversity Survey.

Table A.2 Logistic models predicting with university degree by source country/region groups

  United States/Europe Non-U. S ./European countries Children of Canadian-born parents
Coefficient Standard error Coefficient Standard error Coefficient Standard error
Intercept -5.18 8.73 -21.30*** 7.49 18.94*** 5.90
Africa -1.16** 0.41
Caribbean -1.97*** 0.37
Latin America -1.70*** 0.31
Philippines -1.68*** 0.29
India -0.53** 0.17
West Asia/Middle East -1.15*** 0.29
Other Asia -0.77* 0.34
United States -0.14 0.33
Germany -0.23 0.15
Italy 0.42* 0.21
Portugal 0.49 0.32
Netherlands 0.40 0.27
Other N.W.Europe 0.06 0.19
Eastern Europe -0.12 0.28
Other Europe 0.78*** 0.29
Other countries -0.26 0.64
Age 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04*** 0.01
Female 0.18 0.10 0.59** 0.19 0.39*** 0.04
Not living with parents -4.31*** 1.15 -2.04* 1.02 -0.96*** 0.27
Lone mother -0.68*** 0.19 -0.44 0.32 -0.52*** 0.06
Lone father 0.29 0.53 -0.32 0.68 -0.76*** 0.11
Large urban 0.60*** 0.13 1.51*** 0.39 0.88*** 0.05
Small urban 0.17 0.18 1.27** 0.42 0.33*** 0.06
Generation 1.5 -0.47 0.28 -0.19 0.58
Generation 1.75 -0.37* 0.18 0.39 0.43
Generation 2 -0.24 0.14 -0.17 0.37
Mother university 0.83* 0.32 0.05 0.33 1.88*** 0.07
Mother some postsecondary 0.51** 0.19 0.32 0.34 0.97*** 0.06
Mother high school graduation 0.38* 0.18 0.45 0.26 0.60*** 0.06
Father university 1.64*** 0.19 1.09*** 0.30 1.67*** 0.06
Father some postsecondary 0.81*** 0.22 0.16 0.30 0.57*** 0.06
Father high school graduation 0.40* 0.23 0.11 0.32 0.63*** 0.06
E/F1 is mother tongue 0.03 0.21 0.23 0.22
E/F not mother tongue, speaks E/F with parents 0.51* 0.21 -0.29 0.39
Father's generation education 1.40 0.96 1.04 1.24 4.21*** 1.12
Father's generation earnings 0.22 0.83 1.85* 0.76 -2.18*** 0.55
Proportion living in rural and small towns -2.87* 1.28 -3.68 2.32 -2.22** 0.77

 

… not applicable

* p < 0.05

** p < 0,01

*** p < 0.001

1. English/French

Note: China is the reference group for non-U.S./European groups and the United Kingdom is the reference group for European/ U.S. groups. Source: Statistics Canada, Ethnic Diversity Survey.

Table A.3 Coefficients of logistic models predicting with university degree for major source countries/regions

  China India Caribbean United Kingdom Italy
Intercept -2.09 3.30 -1.10 -4.10*** -2.22***
Age 0.01 -0.20** 0.01-0 0.04* -0.01
Female 0.99* -0.29** 0.83* -0.15 0.47***
Lived with two parents   0.03 0.02 0.34* 1.25***
Large urban 0.09 1.09*** -0.80 0.62*** 0.18***
Generation 1.5 4.75*** 0.15 -0.04 -0.31  
Generation 1.75 2.62*** 3.38*** -0.71 0.16 -0.80***
Generation 2 1.17*** 0.43 -0.28 0.17 -0.38***
Mother university 1.01*** 0.42 0.41 1.71*** -0.30***
Mother some postsecondary 1.01* 1.41*** -0.36 0.72* 0.75***
Mother high school graduation 0.85*** 0.52*** -0.27 0.53 -0.14**
Father university 0.89*** 3.13*** 0.95 1.54*** 1.94***
Father some postsecondary -0.47*** 0.11 1.33** 0.64** -0.04
Father high school graduation 0.35*** 0.74*** -0.71 0.97*** -0.01
E/F1 is mother tongue 0.00 0.60***     0.50***
E/F not mother tongue, speaks E/F with parents -0.93** -1.37***     0.40***
Sample size (number) 177 131 273 523 315

* p < 0.05

** p < 0.01

*** p < 0.001 1. English/French.

Notes: The coefficients for the language variables for the immigrants from the Caribbean and the United Kingdom are not included because very few in these groups had a mother tongue other than English or French. The "Lived with two parents" coefficient is not included for the Chinese group because few in this group did not live with both parents until age 15. "Generation 1.5" is combined with "Generation 1.75" for Italian immigrants due to the small sample size.

Source: Statistics Canada, Ethnic Diversity Survey.

Table A.4 T-values of testing statistical differences in regression coefficients for different groups in models in Table A.3

  India Caribbean United Kingdom Italy
Female
China 1.83 0.02 2.73** 1.39
India   -1.88 -0.15 -1.08
Caribbean     3.00** 1.50
United Kingdom       -2.31**
Father's university education
China 0.68 0.84 -0.42 1.94
India   0.08 -1.35 1.17
Caribbean     -1.78 1.24
United Kingdom       3.55 ***
Mother's university education
China -2.26 * -0.48 -1.19 -1.54
India   2.09* 1.84 1.15
Caribbean     -0.81 -1.27
United Kingdom       -0.81
E/F1 is mother tongue
China -0.86 -0.99
India   0.23
E/F not mother tongue, speaks        
E/F with parents        
China 0.69 -2.29 *
India   -2.30*

… not applicable

* p < 0.05

** p < 0.01

*** p < 0.001

1. English/French.

Note: Some cells have been left blank to avoid repetition.

Source: Statistics Canada, Ethnic Diversity Survey.

Table A.5 University Educational Attainment among children of immigrants,1 aged from 25 to 34, by source country/region, Canada, 2001 and 2006

  2001 2006
With university degrees Ratio to the level among children of Canadian-born parents Sample size With university degrees Ratio to the level among children of Canadian-born parents Sample size
percent   number percent   number
Africa 48.3*** 2.3 4,076 50.1*** 2.1 5,518
Caribbean 26.0*** 1.2 8,237 27.8*** 1.2 10,572
Latin America 22.3 1.0 5,947 23.3 1.0 9,405
China 56.7*** 2.6 6,223 62.4*** 2.6 9,087
Philippines 35.1*** 1.6 2,827 33.0*** 1.4 4,649
India 46.6*** 2.2 4,443 50.1*** 2.1 6,864
West Asia/Middle East 42.0*** 2.0 2,743 41.1*** 1.7 5,049
Other Asia 43.4*** 2.0 6,220 44 .8*** 1.9 9,764
United States 31.6*** 1.5 9,906 35.1*** 1.5 9,801
United Kingdom 29.4*** 1.4 31,375 33. 3*** 1.4 27,194
Germany 28.5*** 1.3 9,930 33.0*** 1.4 8,097
Italy 28.0*** 1.3 22,935 31.4*** 1.3 18,722
Portugal 14.6*** 0.7 6,782 17.5*** 0.7 7,796
Netherlands 24.2*** 1.1 10,360 30.0*** 1.3 8,100
Other Northern/Western Europe 31.4*** 1.5 10,090 36.8*** 1.5 8,641
Eastern Europe 37.6*** 1.8 9,015 41.4*** 1.7 8,858
Other Europe 32.3*** 1.5 10,985 34.5*** 1.5 9,872
Other countries 33.8*** 1.6 1,708 33.0*** 1.4 1,849
All groups of children of immigrant parents 31.6*** 1.5 163,802 35.8*** 1.5 169,838
Children of Canadian born parents 21.4 1.0 441,533 23.8 1.0 433,788

*** p < 0.001 (level is significantly different from that among children of Canadian-born parents)

1. Includes Canadian-born children with at least one immigrant parent and foreign-born children who immigrated to Canada before age 13.

Source: Statistics Canada, 2001 and 2006 Censuses of Population, 20% sample microdata files.