Vancouver – A Data Story on Ethnocultural Diversity and Inclusion in Canada

Release date: May 10, 2019

A Data Story: A discussion with Statistics Canada

Anil Arora
Chief Statistician of Canada

Vancouver, May 8, 2019

Delivering insight through data for a better Canada.

Statistics Canada and measuring diversity and inclusion

?

Who are we?

Statistics Canada has two primary objectives:

  1. To provide statistical information and analysis about Canada's economic and social structure;
  2. To promote sound statistical practices and standards.

Forces at play in defining a measure on diversity and inclusion

Measuring diversity and inclusion

Various data sources are used to measure and take into account the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity and pluralism in Canada

Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census

?
Description for Figure 1 - Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census
Evolution of the ethnocultural question in the Canadian census, 1871 to 2016
1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Place of birth X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Citizenship X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Year of immigration X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
(Year of naturalization) X X X X X
Immigrant status X X X X X X
Place of birth of parents X X X X X X X X
(Colour) X
Origin* X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Population groups/visible minorities X X X X X
Aboriginal groups (Aboriginal identity) X X X X X X
Registered or Treaty Indian status X X X X X X
Membership in a First Nation or Indian band X X X X X X
(French Canadian) X
Mother tongue X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of official languages X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of non-official languages X X X X X X
Language spoken most often at home X X X X X X X X X
Language spoken regularly at home X X X X
Language used most often at work X X X X
Language used regularly at work X X X X
Religion X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1871 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Key concepts in immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada: 2016 Census

For more information, please refer to the 2016 Census dictionary.

Key concepts in immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada: Road to the 2021 Census

For more information, please refer to on the road to the 2021 Census.

Portrait of ethnocultural diversity in British Columbia and Vancouver

Net international migration is the main driver of population growth in British Columbia

?
Description for Chart 1 - Sources of population growth in British Columbia, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
Sources of population growth in British Columbia, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
  Natural increase Net international migration Net interprovincial migration
1971-1972 16,680 15,111 28,088
1972-1973 16,677 19,584 27,193
1973-1974 15,632 26,438 31,505
1974-1975 16,820 28,820 9,615
1975-1976 16,997 20,776 -5,035
1976-1977 18,032 13,332 5,016
1977-1978 17,762 9,473 17,576
1978-1979 18,944 9,091 22,005
1979-1980 19,681 20,741 40,164
1980-1981 21,153 21,717 37,864
1981-1982 22,499 19,665 8,705
1982-1983 22,121 11,270 -1,489
1983-1984 23,265 10,694 6,636
1984-1985 22,745 8,088 -1,969
1985-1986 20,957 12,739 -4,501
1986-1987 20,909 14,893 7,426
1987-1988 19,211 23,612 21,479
1988-1989 21,004 31,337 27,821
1989-1990 21,945 30,245 41,394
1990-1991 21,330 23,983 34,053
1991-1992 21,774 26,541 38,004
1992-1993 20,330 29,869 40,099
1993-1994 20,946 40,813 37,871
1994-1995 20,708 42,644 29,291
1995-1996 19,881 47,352 22,025
1996-1997 17,715 45,802 9,880
1997-1998 15,709 27,982 -10,029
1998-1999 14,822 27,055 -14,484
1999-2000 13,925 27,670 -14,610
2000-2001 12,552 34,276 -8,286
2001-2002 11,233 33,197 -8,556
2002-2003 11,840 25,375 -1,037
2003-2004 10,343 25,254 7,865
2004-2005 10,299 34,158 8,214
2005-2006 10,881 38,089 8,800
2006-2007 11,422 33,263 15,005
2007-2008 12,165 42,073 14,643
2008-2009 13,254 48,421 9,995
2009-2010 13,242 43,570 8,728
2010-2011 12,209 27,074 3,421
2011-2012 11,512 35,751 -2,711
2012-2013 11,268 33,849 -1,868
2013-2014 10,701 36,792 9,475
2014-2015 9,641 19,206 20,379
2015-2016 9,114 29,919 26,573
2016-2017 6,662 37,406 18,834
2017-2018 6,279 55,457 7,799
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

In 2016, immigrants represented 28% of the total population in British Columbia, compared with 29% in Ontario, 14% in Quebec and 21% in Alberta

?
Description for Chart 2 - Number and proportion of immigrants in British Columbia, 1971 to 2016
Number and proportion of immigrants in British Columbia, 1971 to 2016
Thousands Percentage
1971 496,660 22.7
1981 627,560 23.1
1991 723,170 22.3
2001 1,007,950 26.1
2011 1,191,880 27.6
2016 1,292,675 28.3
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Immigrants represent at least half of the total population in Richmond and Burnaby

Immigrants in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver

Immigrants in census subdivisons (CSD) in Vancouver CMA, 2016
Census subdivision Number of immigrants Proportion (%)
Richmond 118,300 60.2
Burnaby 115,145 50.0
Greater Vancouver A 6,890 48.2
West Vancouver 18,615 44.7
Coquitlam 61,055 44.2
Surrey 220,155 43.0
Vancouver 262,770 42.5
North Vancouver 19,930 38.2
New Westminster 24,375 34.9
Port Moody 10,750 32.1
Port Coquitlam 18,430 31.8
North Vancouver (DM) 26,505 31.2
Delta 31,235 31.0
Langley (DM) 22,495 19.4
Maple Ridge 15,465 19.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.
?
Description for Map 1 - Immigrants in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver, 2016
Immigrants in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver, 2016
Census subdivision Number of immigrants Proportion (%)
Langley 22,495 19.4
Langley 4,395 17.4
Surrey 220,155 43.0
White Rock 4,895 25.6
Delta 31,235 31.0
Richmond 118,300 60.2
Greater Vancouver A 6,890 48.2
Vancouver 262,770 42.5
Burnaby 115,145 50.0
New Westminster 24,375 34.9
Coquitlam 61,055 44.2
Belcarra 135 22.7
Anmore 645 29.2
Port Coquitlam 18,430 31.8
Port Moody 10,750 32.1
North Vancouver 26,505 31.2
North Vancouver 19,930 38.2
West Vancouver 18,615 44.7
Bowen Island 770 21.0
Lions Bay 490 35.4
Pitt Meadows 3,955 21.5
Maple Ridge 15,465 19.1
Semiahmoo 0 0.0
Tsawwassen 105 14.0
Musqueam 2 0 0.0
Coquitlam 2 0 0.0
Coquitlam 1 0 0.0
Burrard Inlet 3 445 24.0
Mission 1 0 0.0
Capilano 5 1,155 39.6
Barnston Island 3 0 0.0
Musqueam 4 0 0.0
Seymour Creek 2 0 0.0
Katzie 2 0 0.0
McMillan Island 6 0 0.0
Matsqui 4 55 11.7
Katzie 1 0 0.0
Langley 5 0 0.0
Whonnock 1 0 0.0
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

The vast majority of recent immigrants in British Columbia are from Asia

?
Description for Chart 3 - Region of birth of recent immigrants in British Columbia, 1971 to 2016
Region of birth of recent immigrants in British Columbia, 1971 to 2016
  1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2016
Oceania and others 9.6 4.7 3.0 1.7 1.7 1.8
Asia (including Middle East) 19.0 50.4 68.3 76.2 73.3 75.1
Africa 1.8 3.7 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.5
Caribbean, Bermuda, Central and South America 3.2 3.9 5.7 3.4 4.6 4.6
United States of America 18.6 9.3 5.2 3.1 4.7 3.7
Europe 47.9 28.0 14.9 12.3 12.4 11.2
Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding a given census.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Top countries of birth reported by recent immigrants in British Columbia, 2016

Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant status or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding the Census year.

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

The share of immigrants from certain parts of the world could continue to grow, while those from earlier waves of immigration could continue to decline

Distribution of immigrants living in Vancouver CMA, by region of birth

2016

?
Description for Map 2 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Vancouver, by region of birth, 2016
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Vancouver, by region of birth, 2016
Percentage
North America 2.7
Caribbean and Bermuda 0.7
Central America 1.6
South America 1.6
Northern Europe 6.6
Western Europe 2.8
Southern Europe 3.3
Eastern Europe 4.5
Northern Africa 0.4
Western Africa 0.3
Central Africa 0.1
Southern Africa 0.9
Eastern Africa 1.6
West Central Asia and Middle East 6.2
Southern Asia 14.3
Eastern Asia 35.2
Southeast Asia 14.8
Oceania and others 2.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

2036 - Projected

?
Description for Map 3 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Vancouver, by region of birth, 2036 - Projected
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Vancouver, by region of birth, 2036 - Projected
Percentage
North America 2.4 to 2.5
Caribbean and Bermuda 0.7 to 0.8
Central America 2.1 to 2.2
South America 2.0 to 2.2
Northern Europe 3.7 to 3.9
Western Europe 1.4 to 1.6
Southern Europe 1.4 to 1.7
Eastern Europe 3.4 to 3.9
Northern Africa 0.6 to 0.7
Western Africa 0.4 to 0.5
Central Africa 0.1 to 0.2
Southern Africa 0.6 to 0.7
Eastern Africa 1.2 to 1.4
West Central Asia and Middle East 7.1 to 8.5
Southern Asia 16.4 to 17.1
Eastern Asia 32.4 to 35.8
Southeast Asia 17.6 to 19.6
Oceania and others 1.7 to 1.9
Source: Statistics Canada, Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551. (Based on six scenarios)

Although the diversity of the British Columbia population has primarily been driven by various waves of international immigration, the population of people born in Canada to at least one immigrant parent is growing

?
Description for Chart 4 - Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in British Columbia, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projected based on six scenarios)
Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in British Columbia, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projected based on six scenarios)
  2016 2036
Immigrants 28.3 32.3
Second generation 22.9 22.9
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551. (Based on six scenarios)

In the Vancouver CMA, immigrants and second-generation individuals represented 66% of the population in 2016.

This proportion could rise to between 69% and 74% in 2036.

Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551. (Based on six scenarios)

Linguistic diversity in Vancouver: close to 180 languagesFootnote 1

Mother tongue of the Vancouver population (CMA)

Mother tongue of immigrants in Vancouver (CMA)

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Relative proportion of the Vancouver CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016

?
Description for Figure 2 - Relative proportion of the Vancouver CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
Relative proportion of the Vancouver CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
Total number of people Percentage in category Percentage of the total population
Total 2,440,145
Immigrant languages 1,091,260 44.7
Cantonese 193,030 17.7 7.9
Mandarin 180,170 16.5 7.4
Punjabi (Panjabi) 163,400 15.0 6.7
Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 78,830 7.2 3.2
Korean 47,920 4.4 2.0
Persian (Farsi) 43,230 4.0 1.8
Spanish 39,625 3.6 1.6
Hindi 28,525 2.6 1.2
German 25,565 2.3 1.0
Vietnamese 24,590 2.3 1.0
Russian 18,880 1.7 0.8
Japanese 18,225 1.7 0.7
Italian 16,715 1.5 0.7
Arabic 16,130 1.5 0.7
Polish 12,640 1.2 0.5
Portuguese 12,620 1.2 0.5
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese) 11,150 1.0 0.5
Urdu 10,355 0.9 0.4
Chinese, n.o.s. 9,040 0.8 0.4
Dutch 7,875 0.7 0.3
Romanian 7,465 0.7 0.3
Gujarati 7,340 0.7 0.3
Serbian 6,535 0.6 0.3
Croatian 5,820 0.5 0.2
Hungarian 5,535 0.5 0.2
Greek 5,320 0.5 0.2
Ilocano 5,015 0.5 0.2
Wu (Shanghainese) 4,425 0.4 0.2
Ukrainian 4,275 0.4 0.2
Malay 3,815 0.3 0.2
Tamil 3,800 0.3 0.2
Czech 3,720 0.3 0.2
Cebuano 3,585 0.3 0.1
Bengali 2,970 0.3 0.1
Turkish 2,905 0.3 0.1
Slovak 2,500 0.2 0.1
Hakka 2,310 0.2 < 0.1
Danish 2,165 0.2 < 0.1
Thai 2,055 0.2 < 0.1
Malayalam 2,025 0.2 < 0.1
Finnish 1,985 0.2 < 0.1
Hebrew 1,930 0.2 < 0.1
Sindhi 1,870 0.2 < 0.1
Kurdish 1,790 0.2 < 0.1
Bulgarian 1,780 0.2 < 0.1
Afrikaans 1,665 0.2 < 0.1
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 1,655 0.2 < 0.1
Hiligaynon 1,425 0.1 < 0.1
Swedish 1,405 0.1 < 0.1
Khmer (Cambodian) 1,310 0.1 < 0.1
Somali 1,270 0.1 < 0.1
Bosnian 1,220 0.1 < 0.1
Amharic 1,215 0.1 < 0.1
Serbo-Croatian 1,190 0.1 < 0.1
Albanian 1,165 0.1 < 0.1
Armenian 1,145 0.1 < 0.1
Pashto 1,140 0.1 < 0.1
Burmese 1,085 < 0.1 < 0.1
Telugu 1,080 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nepali 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austronesian languages, n.i.e. 910 < 0.1 < 0.1
Norwegian 900 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lao 895 < 0.1 < 0.1
Karenic languages 795 < 0.1 < 0.1
Swahili 780 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tigrigna 760 < 0.1 < 0.1
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 725 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pampangan (Kapampangan, Pampango) 695 < 0.1 < 0.1
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 675 < 0.1 < 0.1
Marathi 625 < 0.1 < 0.1
Creole, n.o.s. 570 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slovene (Slovenian) 570 < 0.1 < 0.1
Azerbaijani 505 < 0.1 < 0.1
Akan (Twi) 480 < 0.1 < 0.1
Estonian 470 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fijian 450 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic 445 < 0.1 < 0.1
Other languages, n.i.e. 430 < 0.1 < 0.1
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 375 < 0.1 < 0.1
Mongolian 355 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lithuanian 350 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bikol 330 < 0.1 < 0.1
Latvian 330 < 0.1 < 0.1
Creole languages, n.i.e. 305 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pangasinan 285 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kannada 280 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tibetan 275 < 0.1 < 0.1
Konkani 270 < 0.1 < 0.1
Macedonian 260 < 0.1 < 0.1
Yoruba 260 < 0.1 < 0.1
Yiddish 250 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e. 245 < 0.1 < 0.1
Min Dong 225 < 0.1 < 0.1
Vlaams (Flemish) 215 < 0.1 < 0.1
Igbo 215 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nilo-Saharan languages, n.i.e. 205 < 0.1 < 0.1
Waray-Waray 195 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chinese languages, n.i.e. 195 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oromo 185 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slavic languages, n.i.e. 185 < 0.1 < 0.1
Shona 180 < 0.1 < 0.1
Turkic languages, n.i.e. 180 < 0.1 < 0.1
Scottish Gaelic 170 < 0.1 < 0.1
Icelandic 170 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uyghur 170 < 0.1 < 0.1
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 140 < 0.1 < 0.1
Celtic languages, n.i.e. 140 < 0.1 < 0.1
Rundi (Kirundi) 135 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hmong-Mien languages 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Welsh 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Catalan 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uzbek 110 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) 105 < 0.1 < 0.1
Maltese 95 < 0.1 < 0.1
Berber languages, n.i.e. 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Edo 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Frisian 85 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lingala 85 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dinka 85 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ganda 80 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oriya (Odia) 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Italic (Romance) languages, n.i.e. 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ewe 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Belarusan 65 < 0.1 < 0.1
Georgian 65 < 0.1 < 0.1
Afro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 55 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dravidian languages, n.i.e. 55 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kashmiri 45 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kabyle 40 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 40 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ga 35 < 0.1 < 0.1
Wolof 35 < 0.1 < 0.1
Haitian Creole 30 < 0.1 < 0.1
Germanic languages, n.i.e. 30 < 0.1 < 0.1
Harari 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fulah (Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde) 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tai-Kadai languages, n.i.e. 20 < 0.1 < 0.1
Cushitic languages, n.i.e. 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Malagasy 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bamanankan 10 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bilen 5 < 0.1 < 0.1
Note: The category 'Total' is a total population count. The sum of the languages in this table is greater than the total population count because a person may report more than one language in the census.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016: see interactive bubble chart.

Growing multilingualism in the home

?
Description for Chart 5 - Languages spoken most often and regularly at home (secondary use) by immigrants, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2016
Languages spoken most often and regularly at home (secondary use) by immigrants, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2016
  English only Non-official language only English and non-official language
2006 26.9 35.6 36.4
2011 23.6 34.3 41.2
2016 21.8 33.1 44.1
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

In 2016, 1.0% (or 9,875) of immigrants in Vancouver CMA spoke French at home (alone or in combination with other languages).

250 ethnic or cultural origins were reported by the population of British Columbia

?
Description for Chart 6 - The top 20 ethnic origins reported in British Columbia, 2016
The top 20 ethnic origins reported in British Columbia, 2016
  Single response Multiple response
Métis 10,085 80,435
Swedish 7,475 102,555
Welsh 5,360 108,540
British Isles origins, n.i.e. 26,740 95,955
Russian 22,145 108,910
Norwegian 11,550 126,885
Polish 24,565 125,070
Filipino 115,865 42,345
Italian 42,725 123,365
Dutch 52,040 161,630
First Nations (North American Indian) 70,665 149,575
Ukrainian 34,610 194,590
East Indian 261,550 47,765
French 32,205 356,375
Chinese 456,845 83,310
German 99,320 503,945
Irish 44,355 630,775
Scottish 71,060 789,715
Canadian 312,070 554,460
English 202,495 1,001,050
Note: In this chart, the total responses is greater than the total population because a person can report more than one origin.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In 2016, 48% of the British Columbia population reported more than one origin in the census.

In Vancouver, about 4 in 10 people reported no religious affiliation…

?
Description for Chart 7 - Proportion of the population, by religious groups, Vancouver CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios) - Part 1
Proportion of the population, by religious groups, Vancouver CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios) - Part 1
Year No religious affliation Catholic Protestant Other Christian
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
percent
2011 41.6 41.6 16.5 16.5 16.2 16.2 7.4 7.4
2016 42.6 41.0 16.7 16.2 14.3 13.9 8.1 8.0
2021 43.3 40.5 16.9 15.7 12.7 12.1 8.7 8.4
2026 43.9 39.9 17.1 15.3 11.5 10.6 9.1 8.7
2031 44.3 39.3 17.2 14.9 10.4 9.5 9.6 9.0
2036 44.7 38.7 17.3 14.6 9.4 8.6 10.0 9.2
Note: The shaded area indicates the interval between the minimum and maximum values projected by the seven scenarios considered.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2017. Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

…and the share of some non-Christian religions could increase

?
Description for Chart 8 - Proportion of the population, by religious groups, Vancouver CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios) - Part 2
Proportion of the population, by religious groups, Vancouver CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios) - Part 2
Year Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other religions
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
percent
2011 3.4 3.4 1.8 1.8 0.8 0.8 3.2 3.2 6.8 6.8 0.8 0.8
2016 3.9 3.4 2.0 1.9 0.8 0.8 3.8 3.7 7.3 7.2 0.8 0.8
2021 4.2 3.5 2.2 2.1 0.7 0.7 4.5 4.1 7.7 7.6 0.8 0.7
2026 4.5 3.4 2.5 2.2 0.7 0.7 5.0 4.4 8.1 7.8 0.8 0.7
2031 4.7 3.4 2.7 2.3 0.7 0.6 5.5 4.7 8.4 8.1 0.8 0.6
2036 4.9 3.3 2.9 2.4 0.6 0.6 6.0 4.9 8.8 8.3 0.7 0.6
Note: The shaded area indicates the interval between the minimum and maximum values projected by the seven scenarios considered.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2017. Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

In 2017, 50% of Vancouver's population who reported a religious affiliation attended religious ceremonies at least 3 times a year.

Source: Statistics Canada,General Social Survey, 2017.

In British Columbia, the two largest visible minority groups as defined by the Employment Equity Act are Chinese and South Asian

?
Description for Chart 9 - Main groups defined as visible minorities in British Columbia, 2001 to 2016
Main groups defined as visible minorities in British Columbia, 2001 to 2016
2001 2006 2011 2016
Chinese 365,485 407,225 438,145 508,480
South Asian 210,295 262,290 313,440 365,705
Filipino 64,010 88,075 126,035 145,030
Korean 31,965 50,490 53,770 60,495
Southeast Asian 34,970 40,690 51,970 54,920
West Asian 22,375 29,810 38,960 48,695
Latin American 23,880 28,965 35,465 44,115
Black 25,460 28,315 33,260 43,500
Japanese 32,730 35,060 38,115 41,235
Arab 6,610 8,635 14,090 19,840
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Inclusion and Equity: Challenges and issues

Context of admission and living arrangements among recent immigrants in Vancouver

Three broad admission categories for recent immigrants:

Living arrangements in the household for non-immigrants (%) and recent immigrants (%)
Living arrangements in the household Non-immigrants (%) Recent Immigrants (%)
In a couple without children 17.4 13.5
In a couple with children 41.0 46.0
In a lone-parent family 8.6 6.2
Persons in multigenerational households 8.5 12.5
Living with others (relatives or non-relatives) 11.8 16.6
Living alone 12.6 5.2
Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant status or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding the Census year.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Between 2006 and 2017, about 1 in 4 immigrants who intended to live in the CMA of Vancouver were not able to conduct a conversation in English or French at the time of their admission in the country

?
Description for Chart 10 - Proportion of immigrants who do not know English or French at the time of their admission, by admission year, Vancouver CMA as their intended destination
Proportion of immigrants who do not know English or French at the time of their admission, by admission year, Vancouver CMA as their intended destination
Total Economic immigrants, Principal applicants Immigrants sponsored by family Refugees
2006 30.8 25.9 35.7 38.1
2007 26.2 19.7 30.7 48.1
2008 24.4 19.4 29.1 46.6
2009 26.1 20.3 30.7 47.3
2010 24.6 19.6 29.8 53.3
2011 21.1 17.8 23.8 32.7
2012 27.3 14.0 40.6 45.0
2013 35.1 12.9 52.7 59.0
2014 26.4 11.9 41.7 64.2
2015 18.9 4.5 33.5 55.1
2016 16.9 2.4 27.0 49.8
2017 15.1 1.6 27.6 45.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database, 2016.

In 2016, 43% of Vancouver's recent immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French used a non-official language at work

?
Description for Chart 11 - Use of other languages at work by immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French1, by period of immigration and selected census metropolitan areas, 2016
Use of other languages at work by immigrants with a mother tongue other than English or French1, by period of immigration and selected census metropolitan areas, 2016
  Before 1981 1981 to 1990 1991 to 2000 2001 to 2005 2006 to 2010 2011 to 2016
Montréal 14.7 15.3 15.1 13.4 14.4 22.0
Toronto 14.9 19.9 19.8 21.0 25.8 28.7
Vancouver 20.4 29.5 34.3 34.6 39.2 42.5
1 Only single responses to the question on mother tongue were considered
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In Vancouver, the employment rate for immigrant men is now similar to that of Canadian-born men, but a gap persists for immigrant women

?
Description for Chart 12 - Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and period of immigration, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54 years),by immigrant status and period of immigration, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2018
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born women
2006 68.7 53.3 75.1 81.3
2007 69.9 55.4 76.6 82.0
2008 69.5 55.4 75.7 81.9
2009 68.5 54.1 73.6 79.6
2010 67.7 50.9 73.3 82.2
2011 67.8 53.4 74.7 79.8
2012 70.9 59.0 75.1 80.8
2013 68.9 53.6 73.7 81.4
2014 69.4 51.1 76.6 82.3
2015 70.1 49.9 75.9 81.1
2016 72.6 51.9 77.2 82.3
2017 72.5 58.8 78.2 85.7
2018 74.4 65.4 77.2 84.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.
?
Description for Chart 13 - Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and period of immigration, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and period of immigration, Vancouver CMA, 2006 to 2018
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born men
2006 84.9 74.3 87.3 87.9
2007 84.7 73.5 87.4 89.5
2008 85.8 79.9 87.1 88.6
2009 82.9 73.9 84.5 85.4
2010 80.7 77.3 81.9 86.1
2011 82.3 76.3 84.4 85.0
2012 84.5 81.0 85.9 84.8
2013 84.3 79.2 85.9 85.7
2014 83.7 76.2 85.1 86.0
2015 86.5 79.4 87.1 87.4
2016 86.3 84.8 86.9 85.2
2017 87.5 84.3 88.6 88.7
2018 87.6 86.2 87.8 89.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

The unemployment rate of immigrants is higher than for the Canadian-born. These gaps narrow when isolating the influence of key social and ethnocultural characteristics

Observed unemployment rates (%) of core-aged group (25-54 years), by immigrant status and sex, Vancouver, CMA, 1996 to 2016
Women Men
Non-immigrants Immigrants Non-immigrants Immigrants
1996 5.9 9.9 6.6 8.6
2001 4.7 8.1 5.3 7.3
2006 4.2 6.6 3.4 4.6
2011 5.1 7.5 5.5 5.8
2016 4.3 6.2 4.3 4.5
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.
?
Description for Chart 14 - Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted1) of immigrants to Canadian-born, by sex, Vancouver CMA, 1996 to 2016
Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted1) of immigrants to Canadian-born, Vancouver CMA
  Women - observed Women - adjusted1 Men - observed Men - adjusted1
1996 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.2
2001 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.3
2006 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.4
2011 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1
2016 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.1
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of work experience, marital status, education and visible minority status.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Among women and men, the gap between the annual median salaries of immigrants and the Canadian-born is mostly due to a range of ethnocultural and socioeconomic characteristics and work experience

?
Description for Chart 15 - Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged (25-54 years) immigrant women workers and Canadian-born workers, Vancouver CMA, 1995 to 2015
Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged (25-54 years) immigrant women workers and Canadian-born workers, Vancouver CMA, 1995 to 2015
  Observed Adjusted1
1995 0.74 0.97
2000 0.75 0.95
2005 0.73 0.92
2010 0.79 0.92
2015 0.78 0.91
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of age, marital status, education, visible minority status, full-time or part-time work, the number of weeks worked in a year, and the major occupation group.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.
?
Description for Chart 16 - Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged (25-54 years) immigrant men workers and Canadian-born workers, Vancouver CMA, 1995 to 2015
Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged (25-54 years) immigrant men workers and Canadian-born workers, Vancouver CMA, 1995 to 2015
  Observed Adjusted1
1995 0.78 0.98
2000 0.76 0.95
2005 0.75 0.93
2010 0.79 0.93
2015 0.79 0.92
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of age, marital status, education, visible minority status, full-time or part-time work, the number of weeks worked in a year, and the major occupation group.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Median wages of immigrants rise with the number of years since admission to Canada

Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database, 2016: interactive app

The proportion of immigrants in a low-income situation is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born

?
Description for Chart 17 - Proportion of the population aged 25 to 54 years who were in a low-income situation based on the Market Basket Measure (MBM), by immigrant status, Vancouver CMA
Proportion of the population aged 25 to 54 years who were in a low-income situation based on the Market Basket Measure (MBM), by immigrant status, Vancouver CMA
Non-immigrants Immigrants
25 to 54 years 11.5 19.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

The proportion of immigrants who earned a university degree outside Canada and the United States and who have a job that requires a high school diploma or less is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born

?
Description for Chart 18 - Overqualification rate among female workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Vancouver, 2016
Overqualification rate among female workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Vancouver, 2016
Field of study Canadian-born women Immigrant women with university degree from outside of Canada and the US
Science and science technology 12.5 33.7
Engineering and engineering technology 7.0 30.4
Mathematics and computer and information science 3.8 33.2
Business and administration 11.5 42.4
Arts and humanities 18.8 42.8
Social and behavioural sciences 18.6 35.5
Legal professions and studies 3.5 28.0
Health care 4.6 34.8
Education and teaching 5.8 45.0
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 9.8 32.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.
?
Description for Chart 19 - Overqualification rate among male workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Vancouver, 2016
Overqualification rate among male workers aged 25 years and over with university diploma, by field of study and immigrant status, CMA of Vancouver, 2016
Field of study Canadian-born men Immigrant men with university degree from outside of Canada and the US
Science and science technology 12.2 22.9
Engineering and engineering technology 3.8 22.4
Mathematics and computer and information science 6.0 18.6
Business and administration 10.5 31.0
Arts and humanities 18.8 39.7
Social and behavioural sciences 17.3 34.6
Legal professions and studies 2.3 28.0
Health care 4.1 28.5
Education and teaching 7.5 40.9
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 10.0 31.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Housing conditions of the population living in Vancouver CMA in 2016

?
Description for Chart 20 - Housing characteristics in Vancouver CMA, by immigrant status and period of immigration, 2016
Housing characteristics in Vancouver CMA, by immigrant status and period of immigration, 2016
Non-immigrants Total immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants (5+ years)
Renter 30.6 27.3 51.4 23.2
Unaffordable housing1 23.3 32.4 45.4 30.2
Not suitable 8.6 15.3 28.1 13.1
Major repairs needed 6.0 4.9 4.1 5.1
1 At least 30% of household income is dedicated to housing
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Despite home values far outstripping income growth among Vancouver households, immigrants continue to have higher rates of home ownership compared to their Canadian-born counterparts.

?
Description for Chart 21 - Median Values of Principal Residence and Household Income (Current Dollars), Vancouver CMA, 1996 to 2016
Median Values of Principal Residence and Household Income (Current Dollars), Vancouver CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Median Value of Principal Residence Median After-Tax Household Income
1996 $276,055 $45,108
2006 $449,688 $56,691
2016 $800,285 $74,562
Note: Household income are reported for households headed by someone aged 25 and over. "Immigrants" refers to households headed by an immigrant. Median value of principal residence is for owner-occupied housing only.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2006, 2016.
?
Description for Chart 22 - Home Ownership Rates (%), by immigrant status, Vancouver CMA, 1996 to 2016
Home Ownership Rates (%), by immigrant status, Vancouver CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Immigrants Canadian-Born
1996 66.9 58.2
2006 70.2 64.7
2016 70.2 62.2
Note: Homeownership rates are reported for households headed by someone aged 25 and over. "Immigrants" refers to households headed by an immigrant.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2006, 2016.

In Vancouver, less than 1 in 6 immigrants reported experiencing discrimination or being treated unfairly in the last five years

?
Description for Chart 23 - Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected census metropolitan areas, 2014
Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected census metropolitan areas, 2014
Montréal Toronto Vancouver
Ethnic or cultural affiliation 11.5 9.7 8.2
Race or skin colour 7.7 8.4 7.2
Language 8.9 3.6 5.4
Religion 5.2 3.2 2.5
Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey (victimization), 2014.

The number of police-reported hate crimes - particularly crimes motivated by hatred of religion, race or ethnic origin - has been on the rise since 2015

Number of police-reported hate crimes in Vancouver CMA from 2014 to 2017
2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of police-reported hate crimes in Vancouver CMA 116 116 146 183
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.
?
Description for Chart 24 - Reason reported by police: Religion
Reason reported by police: Religion
2016 2017
Vancouver 35 75
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.
?
Description for Chart 25 - Reason reported by police: Race or ethnic origin
Reason reported by police: Race or ethnic origin
2016 2017
Vancouver 78 78
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.

Most recent analytical publications related to immigration, ethnocultural diversity and inclusion

Multiple dimensions or facets of inclusion and equity

Looking to the future

Ongoing identification of data needs

Ongoing consultation on:

With:

How to measure diversity and inclusion?

How to take into account the fluidity and complexity of identities, ethnicities and multiple background of the population?

What are the current needs and emerging issues?

Developing and collecting new data and statistics

Census of the population

Alternative collection methods

New dissemination strategy of data

Dissemination of new data, analytical and reference products

Development of visualization tools

New Centre for Gender, diversity and inclusion statistics

Date modified: