First Nations, Métis and Inuit Statistics: The way forward

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Release date: June 13, 2018

Talking Stats: A discussion series with Statistics Canada
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
June 13, 2018

Anil Arora
Chief Statistician of Canada

Outline

  1. Who we are
    • Mandate and objectives
    • The learning journey
  2. Local perspectives
    • Data sources – Census, administrative data and survey data
  3. The way forward
    • Challenges and opportunities
    • Modernization

1. Who we are

Mandate and objectives

Statistics Canada's objectives:

  1. to provide statistical information and analysis about Canada's economy and society
  2. to promote sound statistical standards and practices

The work of producing Aboriginal statistics involves:

In carrying out these activities, we work collaboratively with national Indigenous leaders and organizations such as:

More First Nations communities are participating in the Census over time

Chart 1 - Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements

Chart 1 - Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements
Data table for Chart 1 - Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements
Chart 1 - Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements
Census year number
1986 136
1991 78
1996 77
2001 30
2006 22
2011 18
2016 14
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1986 to 2016.

The 2016 Census had the lowest number of incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements.

The Learning Journey

Here are two examples:

Example 1 – How the Aboriginal population is defined

Chart 2 - Aboriginal ancestry (origins), Canada, 1901 to 2016

Chart 2 - Aboriginal ancestry (origins), Canada, 1901 to 2016
Data table for Chart 2 - Aboriginal ancestry (origins), Canada, 1901 to 2016
Chart 2 - Aboriginal ancestry (origins), Canada, 1901 to 2016
Census year number
1901 127,941
1911 106,611
1921 113,724
1931 128,890
1941 160,937
1951 166,607
1961 220,121
1971 312,765
1981 491,465
1991 1,002,675
2001 1,319,890
2011 1,836,035
2016 2,130,520
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1901 to 2016.

Ancestry information has been collected differently over the years. In 2016, the following question was asked: "What were the ethnic or cultural origins of this person's ancestors?"

In 2016, close to 180,000 people in Saskatchewan reported Aboriginal ancestry

Table 1 - Selected Aboriginal ancestry responses, Saskatchewan, 2016
Aboriginal ancestry responses number
First Nations ancestry 130,885
Cree 89,940
Dene, n.o.s. 12,545
Saulteaux 9,770
Ojibway 2,385
Dakota 1,900
Sioux, n.o.s. 1,680
Stoney (Nakoda) 1,555
Assiniboine 1,415
Mi'kmaq 1,010
Cherokee 660
Métis ancestry 56,090
Inuit ancestry 650
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

For the first time in 2016, Statistics Canada released results showing specific First Nations ancestry groups.

Example 1 – How the Aboriginal population is defined (cont'd)

Chart 3 - Aboriginal identity population, Canada, 2016

Chart 3 - Aboriginal identity population, Canada, 2016
Data table for Chart 3 - Aboriginal identity population, Canada, 2016
Chart 3 - Aboriginal identity population, Canada, 2016
Aboriginal identity population number
First Nations (North American Indian) 977,230
Métis 587,540
Inuit (Inuk) 65,025
Multiple Aboriginal responses 21,310
Aboriginal responses not included elsewhere 22,670
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

"Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?"

Example 2 – Using geographic breakdowns that work: Inuit Nunangat

Map 1 - Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016

Map 1 - Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016
Data table for Map 1 - Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016
Map 1 - Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016
Geographic breakdowns of Inuit Nunangat number percentage
Nunatsiavut 2,285 3.5
Nunavik 11,795 18.1
Nunavut 30,140 46.4
Inuvialuit region 3,110 4.8
Outside Inuit Nunangat 17,695 27.2
Total Inuit population (residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat) 65,025 100.0
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

2. Local perspectives

The high quality of these results would not have been possible without the participation of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit in the Census.

The Aboriginal population in Canada is young and growing

Based on the Statistics Canada's 2016 Census of population, the total population was 1,673,785 which represents 4.9% of Canada's total population. The growth from 2006 to 2016 increased to 42.5% and the average age was 32.1 years, almost a decade younger than the non-Aboriginal population.

The Aboriginal population represents a larger part of the total population in the West and North

Map 2 - Aboriginal population count and as percentage of total population in the provinces and territories, 2016

Map 2 - Aboriginal population count and as percentage of total population in the provinces and territories, 2016
Data table for Map 2 - Aboriginal population count and as percentage of total population in the provinces and territories, 2016
Map 2 - Aboriginal population count and as percentage of total population in the provinces and territories, 2016
  Total population Aboriginal population
number percentage
Canada 34,460,065 1,673,785 5
Newfoundland and Labrador 512,250 45,725 9
Prince Edward Island 139,685 2,740 2
Nova Scotia 908,340 51,495 6
New Brunswick 730,710 29,385 4
Québec 7,965,450 182 885 2
Ontario 13,242,160 374,395 3
Manitoba 1,240,700 223,310 18
Saskatchewan 1,070,560 175,020 16
Alberta 3,978,145 258,640 7
British Columbia 4,560,235 270,585 6
Yukon 35,110 8,195 23
Northwest Territories 41,135 20,860 51
Nunavut 35,580 30 555 86
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Aboriginal people make up a greater percentage of the population in the northern part of Saskatchewan

Map 3 - Percentage of the population with Aboriginal identity in Saskatchewan by census tract, 2016

Map 3 - Percentage of the population with Aboriginal identity in Saskatchewan by census tract, 2016
Data table for Map 3 - Percentage of the population with Aboriginal identity in Saskatchewan by census tract, 2016
Map 3 - Percentage of the population with Aboriginal identity in Saskatchewan by census tract, 2016
Location percentage
Division No. 18, CDR 87.4
Division No. 16, CDR 34.8
Division No. 17, CDR 33.4
Division No. 15, CDR 30.3
Division No. 10, CDR 22.4
Division No. 12, CDR 16.3
Division No. 14, CDR 15.9
Division No. 9, CDR 12.6
Division No. 5, CDR 10.9
Division No. 11, CDR 10.6
Division No. 6, CDR 10.5
Division No. 13, CDR 9.6
Division No. 1, CDR 7.2
Division No. 4, CDR 5.9
Division No. 7, CDR 5.6
Division No. 3, CDR 5.0
Division No. 8, CDR 3.5
Division No. 2, CDR 3.0
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Chart 4 - Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 4 - Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 4 - Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 4 - Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan, 2016
  number percentage
First Nations people 114,570 66.00
Métis 57,875 33.00
Inuit 360 0.21
Other Footnote 1 2,210 1.00
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

The Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan in 2016 was 175,020.

Saskatchewan projected to have largest Aboriginal population relative to its size

Projections of the percentage of people declaring an Aboriginal identity in 2036, by provinces and territories

Map 4 - Projections of the percentage of people declaring an Aboriginal identity in 2036, by provinces and territories

Map 4 - Projections of the percentage of people declaring an Aboriginal identity in 2036, by provinces and territories
Data table for Map 4 - Projections of the percentage of people declaring an Aboriginal identity in 2036, by provinces and territories
Map 4 - Projections of the percentage of people declaring an Aboriginal identity in 2036, by provinces and territories
Provinces and territories percentage
Newfoundland and Labrador 9.8
New Brunswick 5.8
Prince Edward Island 4.0
Nova Scotia 6.2
Québec 2.9
Ontario 3.5
Manitoba 20.1
Saskatchewan 20.4
Alberta 7.6
British Columbia 7.2
Northwest Territories 56.7
Source: Statistics Canada, 2015. Projections of the Aboriginal Population and Households in Canada, 2011 to 2036 (Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-552-X).

According to projections, the Aboriginal population could reach between 18.5% and 22.7% in Saskatchewan by 2036.

Aboriginal population increased at twice the rate of the non-Aboriginal population from 2006 to 2016

Chart 5 - Growth rates, Saskatchewan, 2006 to 2016

Chart 5 - Growth rates, Saskatchewan, 2006 to 2016
Data table for Chart 5 - Growth rates, Saskatchewan, 2006 to 2016
Chart 5 - Growth rates, Saskatchewan, 2006 to 2016 
  percentage
Total Aboriginal population 22.8
First Nations 24.5
Métis 20.3
Inuit 67.4
Non-Aboriginal 11.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 2006 to 2016.

Aboriginal population in Saskatoon increased from 2006 to 2016

Chart 6 - Aboriginal population, Saskatoon CMA1, 2006 and 2016

Chart 6 - Aboriginal population, Saskatoon CMA1, 2006 and 2016
Data table for Chart 6 - Aboriginal population, Saskatoon CMA Footnote 2, 2006 and 2016
Chart 6 - Aboriginal population, Saskatoon CMA, 2006 and 2016
  2006 2016
  number
First Nations people
with Registered Indian status
10,220 13,595
First Nations people
without Registered Indian status
1,280 2,180
Métis 9,605 14,900
Other Footnote 3 410 670
Source: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 2006 and 2016.

More children than seniors in Aboriginal population in Saskatchewan

Chart 7 - Percentage of population aged 0 to 14 and 65 years and older, Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 7 - Percentage of population aged 0 to 14 and 65 years and older, Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 7 - Percentage of population aged 0 to 14 and 65 years and older, Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 7 - Percentage of population aged 0 to 14 and 65 years and older, Saskatchewan, 2016
  First Nations people Métis Inuit Non-Aboriginal 
  percentage
0 to 14 years 36.1 26.8 26.4 17.4
65 years and over 4.0 6.5 5.6 16.5
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Aboriginal children make up one-quarter of all children in Saskatchewan

Chart 8 - Aboriginal people as a percentage of total population by age group, Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 8 - Aboriginal people as a percentage of total population by age group, Saskatchewan, 2016
Description Chart 8 - Aboriginal people as a percentage of total population by age group, Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 8 - Aboriginal people as a percentage of total population by age group, Saskatchewan, 2016
Age group percentage
0 to 14 years 27
15 to 24 years 24
25 to 34 years 17
35 to 44 years 15
45 to 54 years 14
55 to 64 years 9
65 years and over 5
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

The Census has information on 70 Aboriginal languages

Map 5 - Main families of Aboriginal languages spoken at home in selected communities, Canada, 2016

Map 5 - Main families of Aboriginal languages spoken at home in selected communities, Canada, 2016
Data table for Map 5 - Main families of Aboriginal languages spoken at home in selected communities, Canada, 2016
  • Algonquian languages
    • St. John's CY
    • Natuashish 2 IRI
    • Sheshatshiu 3 IRI
    • Scotchfort 4 IRI
    • Lennox Island 1 IRI
    • Indian Brook 14 IRI
    • Halifax RGM
    • Millbrook 27 IRI
    • Fisher's Grant 24 IRI
    • Pomquet And Afton 23 IRI
    • Whycocomagh 2 IRI
    • Chapel Island 5 IRI
    • Membertou 28B IRI
    • Eskasoni 3 IRI
    • Cape Breton RGM
    • Wagmatcook 1 IRI
    • Oromocto 26 IRI
    • Moncton C
    • Richibucto 15 IRI
    • Indian Island 28 IRI
    • Red Bank 4 IRI
    • Eel Ground 2 IRI
    • Burnt Church 14 IRI
    • Kingsclear 6 IRI
    • Fredericton CY
    • Devon 30 IRI
    • Woodstock 23 IRI
    • Tobique 20 IRI
    • Québec V
    • Montréal V
    • Pointe-Claire V
    • Gatineau V
    • Pikogan IRI
    • Val-d'Or V
    • Senneterre V
    • Mashteuiatsh IRI
    • Saguenay V
    • Baie-Comeau V
    • Pessamit IRI
    • Sept-Îles V
    • Uashat IRI
    • Maliotenam IRI
    • Kawawachikamach TK
    • Matimekosh IRI
    • La Romaine IRI
    • Natashquan IRI
    • Mingan IRI
    • Chibougamau V
    • Waswanipi TC
    • Mistissini TC
    • Waskaganish TC
    • Nemaska TC
    • Eastmain TC
    • Wemindji TC
    • Chisasibi TC
    • Whapmagoostui TC
    • Ottawa CV
    • Kingston CY
    • Peterborough CY
    • Curve Lake First Nation 35 IRI
    • Toronto C
    • Brampton CY
    • Hamilton C
    • Sarnia CY
    • London CY
    • Saugeen 29 IRI
    • Barrie CY
    • Mnjikaning First Nation 32 (Rama First Nation 32) IRI
    • North Bay CY
    • Nipissing 10 IRI
    • Shawanaga 17 IRI
    • Parry Island First Nation IRI
    • French River 13 IRI
    • Whitefish River (Part) 4 IRI
    • Sucker Creek 23 IRI
    • Sheguiandah 24 IRI
    • Wikwemikong Unceded IRI
    • Sheshegwaning 20 IRI
    • M'Chigeeng 22 (West Bay 22) IRI
    • Zhiibaahaasing 19A (Cockburn Island 19A) IRI
    • Whitefish Lake 6 IRI
    • Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury CV
    • Timmins CY
    • Cochrane T
    • Cochrane, Unorganized, North Part NO
    • Fort Albany (Part) 67 IRI
    • Factory Island 1 IRI
    • Constance Lake 92 IRI
    • Moosonee TV
    • Sault Ste. Marie CY
    • Sagamok IRI
    • Garden River 14 IRI
    • Thunder Bay CY
    • Pic Mobert North IRI
    • Pic River 50 IRI
    • Gull River 55 IRI
    • Ginoogaming First Nation IRI
    • Greenstone MU
    • Aroland 83 IRI
    • Ojibway Nation of Saugeen (Savant Lake) IRI
    • Osnaburgh 63A IRI
    • Thunder Bay, Unorganized NO
    • Whitesand IRI
    • Fort Frances T
    • Manitou Rapids 11 IRI
    • Big Grassy River 35G IRI
    • Neguaguon Lake 25D IRI
    • Rainy Lake 18C IRI
    • Couchiching 16A IRI
    • Rainy Lake 26A IRI
    • Seine River 23A IRI
    • Rainy Lake 17A IRI
    • Whitefish Bay 32A IRI
    • Whitefish Bay 33A IRI
    • Kenora CY
    • Eagle Lake 27 IRI
    • Dryden CY
    • Sioux Lookout MU
    • Red Lake MU
    • Slate Falls S-É
    • Pickle Lake TP
    • Fort Albany (Part) 67 IRI
    • Cat Lake 63C IRI
    • Osnaburgh 63B IRI
    • Lac Seul 28 IRI
    • Wabigoon Lake 27 IRI
    • English River 21 IRI
    • Wabaseemoong IRI
    • Sabaskong Bay 35D IRI
    • Shoal Lake 34B2 IRI
    • Kenora 38B IRI
    • Shoal Lake (Part) 39A IRI
    • Sandy Lake 88 IRI
    • Kitchenuhmaykoosib Aaki 84 (Big Trout Lake) IRI
    • Fort Severn 89 IRI
    • North Spirit Lake IRI
    • Shoal Lake (Part) 40 IRI
    • Whitefish Bay 34A IRI
    • Wapekeka 2 IRI
    • The Dalles 38C IRI
    • Kenora, Unorganized NO
    • Peawanuck S-É
    • Muskrat Dam Lake IRI
    • Kee-Way-Win IRI
    • Alexander RM
    • Powerview-Pine Falls T
    • Swan Lake 7 IRI
    • Brandon CY
    • Sandy Bay 5 IRI
    • Portage la Prairie RM
    • Long Plain (Part) 6 IRI
    • Portage la Prairie CY
    • Winnipeg CY
    • Selkirk CY
    • Keeseekoowenin 61 IRI
    • Alonsa RM
    • Ebb and Flow 52 IRI
    • Dauphin CY
    • Siglunes RM
    • Grahamdale RM
    • Little Saskatchewan 48 IRI
    • Fairford (Part) 50 IRI
    • Division No. 19, Unorganized NO
    • Fort Alexander 3 IRI
    • Little Grand Rapids 14 IRI
    • Bloodvein 12 IRI
    • Hole or Hollow Water 10 IRI
    • Black River 9 IRI
    • Fisher River 44 IRI
    • Peguis 1B IRI
    • Jackhead 43 IRI
    • The Narrows 49 IRI
    • Crane River 51 IRI
    • Waterhen 45 IRI
    • Pine Creek 66A IRI
    • Swan Lake 65C IRI
    • Shoal River Indian Reserve 65A IRI
    • Poplar River 16 IRI
    • Berens River 13 IRI
    • Pauingassi First Nation IRI
    • Swan River T
    • Mountain (North) RM
    • Division No. 20, Unorganized, North Part NO
    • Grand Rapids T
    • Grand Rapids 33 IRI
    • Chemawawin 2 IRI
    • Opaskwayak Cree Nation 21A IRI
    • Opaskwayak Cree Nation 21I IRI
    • Opaskwayak Cree Nation 21E IRI
    • The Pas T
    • Kelsey RM
    • Moose Lake 31A IRI
    • Flin Flon (Part) CY
    • Division No. 21, Unorganized NO
    • Thompson CY
    • Division No. 22, Unorganized NO
    • Garden Hill First Nation IRI
    • God's Lake 23 IRI
    • Oxford House 24 IRI
    • Cross Lake 19 IRI
    • Cross Lake 19A IRI
    • God's River 86A IRI
    • Red Sucker Lake 1976 IRI
    • Norway House 17 IRI
    • Nelson House 170 IRI
    • Split Lake (Part) 171 IRI
    • Ilford S-É
    • York Landing IRI
    • Cross Lake 19E IRI
    • St. Theresa Point IRI
    • Gillam T
    • Leaf Rapids T
    • South Indian Lake S-É
    • Lynn Lake T
    • Churchill T
    • Pukatawagan 198 IRI
    • Brochet 197 IRI
    • Shamattawa 1 IRI
    • White Bear 70 IRI
    • Nekaneet Cree Nation IRI
    • Cowessess 73 IRI
    • Regina CY
    • Piapot 75 IRI
    • Star Blanket 83 IRI
    • Yorkton CY
    • Cote 64 IRI
    • Battle River No. 438 RM
    • Battleford T
    • Red Pheasant 108 IRI
    • Mosquito 109 IRI
    • Cut Knife T
    • Poundmaker 114 IRI
    • Nipawin T
    • Red Earth 29 IRI
    • Kinistin 91 IRI
    • Carrot River 29A IRI
    • Duck Lake T
    • Prince Albert No. 461 RM
    • Prince Albert CY
    • Buckland No. 491 RM
    • One Arrow 95 IRI
    • Beardy's 97 and Okemasis 96 IRI
    • Muskoday First Nation IRI
    • Wahpaton 94A IRI
    • James Smith 100 IRI
    • Little Red River 106C IRI
    • Montreal Lake 106B IRI
    • North Battleford CY
    • Canwood No. 494 RM
    • Muskeg Lake Cree Nation 102 IRI
    • Mistawasis 103 IRI
    • Sturgeon Lake 101 IRI
    • Big River 118 IRI
    • Witchekan Lake 117 IRI
    • Lloydminster (Part) CY
    • Frenchman Butte No. 501 RM
    • Meadow Lake CY
    • Thunderchild First Nation 115B IRI
    • Flying Dust First Nation 105 (Meadow Lake 105) IRI
    • Waterhen 130 IRI
    • Makwa Lake 129B IRI
    • Saulteaux 159 IRI
    • Cumberland House NV
    • Timber Bay NH
    • Weyakwin NH
    • Green Lake NV
    • Cole Bay NH
    • Jans Bay NH
    • Beauval NV
    • La Ronge T
    • Air Ronge NV
    • Creighton T
    • Pelican Narrows NV
    • Sandy Bay NV
    • Pinehouse NV
    • Île-à-la-Crosse NV
    • Buffalo Narrows NV
    • Cumberland House Cree Nation 20 IRI
    • Montreal Lake 106 IRI
    • Stanley 157 IRI
    • Morin Lake 217 IRI
    • Lac La Ronge 156 IRI
    • Kitsakie 156B IRI
    • Southend 200 IRI
    • Grandmother's Bay 219 IRI
    • Kimosom Pwatinahk 203 (Deschambault Lake) IRI
    • Kinoosao-Thomas Clark 204 IRI
    • Lethbridge CY
    • Calgary CY
    • Red Deer CY
    • Ponoka County MD
    • Ponoka T
    • Samson 137 IRI
    • Montana 139 IRI
    • O'Chiese 203 IRI
    • Sunchild 202 IRI
    • Camrose CY
    • Lloydminster (Part) CY
    • Makaoo (Part) 120 IRI
    • Wetaskiwin County No. 10 MD
    • Wetaskiwin CY
    • Parkland County MD
    • Spruce Grove CY
    • Strathcona County SM
    • Edmonton CY
    • St. Albert CY
    • Ermineskin 138 IRI
    • Pigeon Lake 138A IRI
    • Louis Bull 138B IRI
    • Stony Plain 135 IRI
    • Alexander 134 IRI
    • Cold Lake CY
    • Bonnyville No. 87 MD
    • Bonnyville T
    • St. Paul County No. 19 MD
    • St. Paul T
    • Smoky Lake County MD
    • Lac la Biche County MD
    • Unipouheos 121 IRI
    • Puskiakiwenin 122 IRI
    • White Fish Lake 128 IRI
    • Kehewin 123 IRI
    • Beaver Lake 131 IRI
    • Heart Lake 167 IRI
    • Whitecourt T
    • Athabasca T
    • Yellowhead County MD
    • Hinton T
    • Edson T
    • Wood Buffalo SM
    • Gregoire Lake 176 IRI
    • Allison Bay 219 IRI
    • Dog Head 218 IRI
    • Fort Mackay S-É
    • High Prairie T
    • Northern Sunrise County MD
    • Big Lakes MD
    • Slave Lake T
    • Opportunity No. 17 MD
    • Lesser Slave River No.124 MD
    • Northern Lights County MD
    • High Level T
    • Mackenzie County SM
    • Jean Baptiste Gambler 183 IRI
    • Wabasca 166 IRI
    • Wabasca 166A IRI
    • Wabasca 166B IRI
    • Wabasca 166C IRI
    • Wabasca 166D IRI
    • Utikoomak Lake 155 IRI
    • Utikoomak Lake 155A IRI
    • Drift Pile River 150 IRI
    • Sucker Creek 150A IRI
    • Swan River 150E IRI
    • Fox Lake 162 IRI
    • John d'Or Prairie 215 IRI
    • Tall Cree 173 IRI
    • Tall Cree 173A IRI
    • Boyer 164 IRI
    • Little Buffalo S-É
    • Woodland Cree 226 IRI
    • Woodland Cree 228 IRI
    • Fort Vermilion 173B IRI
    • Loon Lake 235 IRI
    • Grande Cache T
    • Greenview No. 16 MD
    • Valleyview T
    • Sturgeon Lake 154 IRI
    • Grande Prairie County No. 1 MD
    • Grande Prairie CY
    • Peace River T
    • Grimshaw T
    • Horse Lakes 152B IRI
    • Surrey CY
    • Vancouver CY
    • Chetwynd DM
    • Dawson Creek CY
    • Peace River D RDA
    • Fort St. John CY
    • East Moberly Lake 169 IRI
  • Athabaskan languages
    • Churchill 1 IRI
    • Lac Brochet 197A IRI
    • Saskatoon CY
    • Patuanak NH
    • St. George's Hill NH
    • Michel Village NH
    • La Loche NV
    • Division No. 18, Unorganized NO
    • Stony Rapids NH
    • La Plonge 192 IRI
    • Wapachewunak 192D IRI
    • Buffalo River Dene Nation 193 (Peter Pond Lake 193) IRI
    • Turnor Lake 193B IRI
    • Fond du Lac 227 IRI
    • Chicken 224 IRI
    • Lac La Hache 220 IRI
    • Clearwater River Dene 222 IRI
    • Tsuu T'ina Nation 145 (Sarcee 145) IRI
    • Cold Lake 149 IRI
    • Cold Lake 149B IRI
    • Janvier 194 IRI
    • Child Lake 164A IRI
    • Hay Lake 209 IRI
    • Bushe River 207 IRI
    • Upper Hay River 212 IRI
    • Williams Lake CY
    • Cariboo E RDA
    • Quesnel CY
    • Cariboo J RDA
    • Anahim's Flat 1 IRI
    • Chilco Lake 1 IRI
    • Nazco 20 IRI
    • Redstone Flat 1 IRI
    • Squinas 2 IRI
    • Stone 1 IRI
    • Toosey 1 IRI
    • Ulkatcho 14A IRI
    • Moricetown 1 IRI
    • Babine 17 IRI
    • Iskut 6 IRI
    • Fort St. James DM
    • Burns Lake VL
    • Smithers T
    • Nak'azdli (Necoslie 1) IRI
    • Binche 2 (Pinchie 2) IRI
    • Stellaquo (Stella) 1 IRI
    • Stony Creek 1 IRI
    • Tache 1 IRI
    • Woyenne 27 IRI
    • Babine 6 IRI
    • Babine 25 IRI
    • North Tacla Lake IRI
    • Prince George CY
    • Doig River 206 IRI
    • Fort Ware 1 IRI
    • Halfway River 168 IRI
    • Fort Nelson 2 IRI
    • Prophet River 4 IRI
    • Whitehorse CY
    • Carmacks VL
    • Haines Junction VL
    • Upper Liard SÉ
    • Pelly Crossing SÉ
    • Old Crow SÉ
    • Yukon, Unorganized NO
    • Fort McPherson HAM
    • Déline CC
    • Tulita HAM
    • Norman Wells T
    • Fort Good Hope CC
    • Colville Lake SET
    • Behchokò CG
    • Whatì CG
    • Gamètì CG
    • Wekweètì CG
    • Kakisa SET
    • Trout Lake SET
    • Fort Liard HAM
    • Nahanni Butte SET
    • Fort Providence HAM
    • Hay River Dene 1 IRI
    • Fort Simpson VL
    • Fort Smith T
    • Hay River T
    • Fort Resolution HAM
    • Lutselk'e SET
    • Region 5, Unorganized NO
    • Detah SET
    • Yellowknife CY
  • Salish languages
    • Lower Similkameen 2 IRI
    • Osoyoos 1 IRI
    • Penticton 1 IRI
    • Chilliwack CY
    • Q'alatkú7em IRI
    • Capilano 5 IRI
    • Cole Bay 3 IRI
    • East Saanich 2 IRI
    • South Saanich 1 IRI
    • North Cowichan DM
    • Halalt 2 IRI
    • Chemainus 13 IRI
    • Kuper Island 7 IRI
    • Cowichan IRI
    • Homalco 9 IRI
    • Sliammon 1 IRI
    • Sechelt (Part) IGD
    • Bridge River 1 IRI
    • Fountain 1 IRI
    • Slosh 1 IRI
    • Mount Currie IRI
    • Merritt CY
    • Kamloops CY
    • Coldwater 1 IRI
    • Nicola Lake 1 IRI
    • Nicola Mameet 1 IRI
    • Bonaparte 3 IRI
    • Skeetchestn IRI
    • Klickkumcheen 18 IRI
    • Inkluckcheen IRI
    • Neskonlith IRI
    • Shackan 11 IRI
    • Kamloops 1 IRI
    • Sahhaltkum 4 IRI
    • Tsinstikeptum 9 IRI
    • Okanagan (Part) 1 IRI
    • Enderby 2 IRI
    • Alkali Lake 1 IRI
    • Bella Coola 1 IRI
  • Siouan languages
    • Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation (Oak Lake 59) IRI
    • Birdtail Creek 57 IRI
    • Whitecap IRI
    • Eden Valley 216 IRI
    • Big Horn 144A IRI
    • Wabamun 133A IRI
    • Alexis 133 IRI
    • Stoney 142, 143, 144 IRI
  • Tsimshian languages
    • Prince Rupert CY
    • Dolphin Island 1 IRI
    • Terrace CY
    • Nisga'a NL
    • Kitsumkaylum 1 IRI
    • Gitanmaax 1 IRI
    • Kispiox 1 IRI
    • Gitsegukla 1 IRI
    • Gitanyow 1 IRI
    • Gitwangak 1 IRI
    • Sik-e-dakh 2 IRI
  • Wakashan languages
    • Port Alberni CY
    • Ittatsoo 1 IRI
    • Marktosis 15 IRI
    • Mount Waddington A RDA
    • Tsulquate 4 IRI
    • Quaee 7 IRI
    • Quatsino Subdivision 18 IRI
    • Alert Bay IRI
    • Bella Bella 1 IRI
    • Kitimat DM
    • Kitamaat 2 IRI
  • Inuit languages
    • Happy Valley-Goose Bay T
    • Makkovik T
    • Hopedale T
    • Nain T
    • Dorval V
    • Kuujjuarapik VN
    • Umiujaq VN
    • Inukjuak VN
    • Kangiqsualujjuaq VN
    • Kuujjuaq VN
    • Tasiujaq VN
    • Aupaluk VN
    • Kangirsuk VN
    • Quaqtaq VN
    • Puvirnituq VN
    • Akulivik VN
    • Kangiqsujuaq VN
    • Salluit VN
    • Ivujivik VN
    • Paulatuk HAM
    • Inuvik T
    • Aklavik HAM
    • Tuktoyaktuk HAM
    • Sachs Harbour HAM
    • Ulukhaktok HAM
    • Sanikiluaq HAM
    • Iqaluit CY
    • Kimmirut HAM
    • Cape Dorset HAM
    • Pangnirtung HAM
    • Qikiqtarjuaq HAM
    • Hall Beach HAM
    • Igloolik HAM
    • Clyde River HAM
    • Arctic Bay HAM
    • Pond Inlet HAM
    • Resolute HAM
    • Grise Fiord HAM
    • Coral Harbour HAM
    • Arviat HAM
    • Rankin Inlet HAM
    • Chesterfield Inlet HAM
    • Baker Lake HAM
    • Repulse Bay HAM
    • Kugaaruk HAM
    • Kugluktuk HAM
    • Cambridge Bay HAM
    • Gjoa Haven HAM
    • Taloyoak HAM
  • Other Aboriginal languages
    • Cornwall CY
    • Brantford CY
    • Tobacco Plains 2 IRI
    • Houpsitas 6 IRI
    • Teslin Post 13 SG

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Chart 9 - Most frequently reported Aboriginal mother tongues in Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 9 - Most frequently reported Aboriginal mother tongues in Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 9 - Most frequently reported Aboriginal mother tongues in Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 9 - Most frequently reported Aboriginal mother tongues in Saskatchewan, 2016
Aboriginal languages Number of people
Cree Footnote 4 17,790
Dene 8,240
Plains Cree 2,355
Ojibway 1,045
Woods Cree 885
Michif 330
Swampy Cree 310
Dakota 225
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Higher levels of educational attainment

Chart 10 - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the total Aboriginal population, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016

Chart 10 - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the total Aboriginal population, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016
Data table for Chart 10 - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the total Aboriginal population, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016
Chart 10 - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the total Aboriginal population, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2006 and 2016
  2006 2016
  percentage
No certificate, diploma or degree 38.4 29.4
High school diploma or equivalency certificate 22.0 28.1
Postsecondary below bachelor level 31.3 32.3
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.3 10.2
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 2006 and 2016.

Gaps in educational attainment

Chart 11 - Educational attainment by Aboriginal identity, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 11 - Educational attainment by Aboriginal identity, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 11 - Educational attainment by Aboriginal identity, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 11 - Educational attainment by Aboriginal identity, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
  No certificate, diploma or degree High school diploma or equivalency certificate Postsecondary below bachelor level Bachelor's degree or higher
  percentage
First Nations people living on reserve 46 24 25 5
First Nations people living off reserve 27 29 32 12
Métis 19 30 38 13
Non-Aboriginal 10 30 36 25
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Median income rises with each level of education

Chart 12 - Median total income by level of education, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 12 - Median total income by level of education, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 12 - Median total income by level of education, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 12 - Median total income by level of education, aged 25 to 64, Saskatchewan, 2016
  Non-Aboriginal Inuit Métis First Nations people living off reserve First Nations people living on reserve
  dollar
No certificate, diploma or degree 34,625 29,445 26,894 20,613 9,274
High school only 43,338 33,205 37,705 29,598 16,641
Postsecondary below bachelor level 52,016 30,616 49,995 35,358 24,051
Bachelor's degree or higher 63,628 0 73,173 56,637 53,760
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Men with apprenticeship certificates in high demand in Saskatchewan

Chart 13 - Median total income for men aged 25 to 64 years by education level, Saskatchewan, 2016

Chart 13 - Median total income for men aged 25 to 64 years by education level, Saskatchewan, 2016
Data table for Chart 13 - Median total income for men aged 25 to 64 years by education level, Saskatchewan, 2016
Chart 13 - Median total income for men aged 25 to 64 years by education level, Saskatchewan, 2016
  No high school High school diploma Apprenticeship certificate College diploma Bachelor's degree
dollar
First Nation 10,456 22,692 35,575 30,803 56,538
Métis 32,800 45,007 72,024 66,194 76,937
Non-Aboriginal 42,938 53,107 77,197 65,984 68,106
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

More than half of First Nations people on reserve live in homes in need of major repairs

Chart 14 - Percentage of people living in homes in need of major repairs, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016

Chart 14 - Percentage of people living in homes in need of major repairs, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Data table for Chart 14 - Percentage of people living in homes in need of major repairs, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Chart 14 - Percentage of people living in homes in need of major repairs, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
  First Nations people living on reserve First Nations people living off reserve Métis Inuit Non-Aboriginal
  percentage
Saskatchewan 51.1 13.8 10.7 13.9 6.7
Canada 44.1 13.8 11.3 26.2 6.0
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Aboriginal children overrepresented among foster children in Saskatchewan

Aboriginal children accounted for 27% of all children under 15 although 8 out of 10 of all foster children

Table 2 - Aboriginal children overrepresented among foster children in Saskatchewan, 2016
  Children under the age of 15
Saskatchewan Foster care
number percentage number percentage
Aboriginal children 57,690 27.1 1,480 82.9
Non-Aboriginal children 155,570 72.9 310 17.4
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population.

Aboriginal adults are overrepresented in admissions to correctional services

Chart 15 - Aboriginal people as percentage of total population by admissions to adult correctional services, Canada and Saskatchewan, 2015 and 2016

Chart 15 - Aboriginal people as percentage of total population by admissions to adult correctional services, Canada and Saskatchewan, 2015 and 2016
Data table for Chart 15 - Aboriginal people as percentage of total population by admissions to adult correctional services, Canada and Saskatchewan, 2015 and 2016
Chart 15 - Aboriginal people as percentage of total population by admissions to adult correctional services, Canada and Saskatchewan, 2015 and 2016
  Percentage of total population Total custodial admissions Sentenced Remand Other custodial statuses
  percentage
Provinces and territories Footnote 5 4.9 26.6 27.0 25.4 32.9
Saskatchewan 16.3 73.2 74.0 73.1 66.0
Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, and Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2016.

Aboriginal homicide rate six times higher than non-Aboriginal rate

Chart 16 - Homicide rate per 100,000 population, Canada, 2016

Chart 16 - Homicide rate per 100,000 population, Canada, 2016
Description Chart 16 - Homicide rate per 100,000 population, Canada, 2016
Chart 16 - Homicide rate per 100,000 population, Canada, 2016
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal
percentage
Total 8.2 1.3
Male  13.2 2.0
Female 3.3 0.7
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Homicide Survey, 2016.

Saskatchewan had the highest number of Aboriginal homicide victims in 2016

Table 3 - Aboriginal homicide victims, by sex, 2016
Province or territory Male Female
number
Atlantic provinces 2 0
Québec 4 0
Ontario 17 1
Manitoba 21 6
Saskatchewan 29 7
Alberta 21 10
British Columbia 15 3
Territories 4 2
Canada 113 29
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Homicide Survey, 2016.

Majority reported excellent or very good health

Chart 17 - Self-reported health status by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012

Chart 17 - Self-reported health status by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Data table for Chart 17 - Self-reported health status by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Chart 17 - Self-reported health status by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Excellent or very good Good Fair Poor
percentage
First Nations people living off reserve 51.2 24.6 14.5 9.7 Footnote E
Métis 57.0 27.6 10.5 4.9 Footnote E
Source: Statistics Canada, Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2012.

Majority reported excellent or very good mental health

Chart 18 - Perceived mental health by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012

Chart 18 - Perceived mental health by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Data table for Chart 18 - Perceived mental health by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Chart 18 - Perceived mental health by Aboriginal identity, aged 12 and older, Saskatchewan, 2012
Excellent or very good Good Fair Poor
percentage
First Nations people living off reserve 61.4 26.1 9.2 F Footnote F
Métis 65.2 26.3 7.1 Footnote E F Footnote F
Source: Statistics Canada, Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2012.

Participation in harvesting activities, such as hunting, fishing and trapping

Chart 19 - Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older participating in harvesting activities in the past year, Saskatchewan, 2012

Chart 19 - Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older participating in harvesting activities in the past year, Saskatchewan, 2012
Data table for Chart 19 - Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older participating in harvesting activities in the past year, Saskatchewan, 2012
Chart 19 - Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older participating in harvesting activities in the past year, Saskatchewan, 2012
First Nations people living off reserve Métis
percentage
Hunted, fished, trapped  25.5 39.3
Gathered wild plants 24.2 22.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2012.

Number of businesses per thousand residents

Chart 20 Number of businesses per thousand residents, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016

Chart 20 Number of businesses per thousand residents, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Data table for Chart 20 Number of businesses per thousand residents, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Chart 20 Number of businesses per thousand residents, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Saskatchewan Canada
Employer businesses Non-employer
businesses
Employer businesses Non-employer
businesses
number
First Nations communities 3.4 25.9 8.4 37.1
Other communities (population less than 3,500) 38.7 315.4 33.3 186.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Centre for Special Business Projects.

In 2016, the number of businesses per thousand residents in First Nations communities was lower than other communities.

Average age of businesses

Chart 21 - Average age of businesses, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016

Chart 21 - Average age of businesses, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Data table for Chart 21 - Average age of businesses, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Chart 21 - Average age of businesses, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
  Saskatchewan Canada
Employer businesses Non-employer businesses Employer businesses Non-employer businesses
years
First Nations communities 15.3 9.8 13.9 8.4
Other communities (population less than 3,500) 15.9 10.3 16.1 9.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Centre for Special Business Projects.

In 2016, businesses in First Nations communities had a slightly lower average age than businesses in other communities.

Businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000

Chart 22 - Percentage of businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016

Chart 22 - Percentage of businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Data table for Chart 22 - Percentage of businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Chart 22 - Percentage of businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000, by community type, Saskatchewan and Canada, 2016
Saskatchewan Canada
Employer businesses Non-employer businesses Employer businesses Non-employer businesses
percentage
First Nations communities 84.7 34.9 83.4 29.7
Other communities (population less than 3,500) 91.7 40.4 88.9 31.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Centre for Special Business Projects.

In Saskatchewan, First Nations communities and other communities had similar percentages of businesses with annual revenue greater than $30,000.

3 - The way forward

Aboriginal Data Framework

The following are 8 major domains:

Modernization

Statistics Canada has always fostered a culture of innovation. We are working to adapt, develop new skills and knowledge and find new ways to modernize our work.

The pillars of modernization are as follows:

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