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Statistics Canada - Government of Canada


Income – Social indicators

a. Average market income1, 2004 constant dollars, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Economic families, two persons or more2
60,000
63,100
58,900
63,500
66,400
67,000
66,900
66,300
68,100
Unattached individuals3
24,700
24,600
20,800
23,700
23,800
24,500
25,000
25,800
25,800
1. Market income is the sum of earnings (from employment and net self-employment), net investment income, private retirement income and "Other income". It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers.
2. An economic family is a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common law or adoption.
3. An unattached individual is a person living either alone or with others to whom he or she is unrelated, such as roommates or lodgers.
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0202.
b. Average total income1 of persons who are income recipients, including transfer payments, 2003 constant dollars, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
All age groups
30,200
31,500
29,500
31,300
32,100
32,600
32,500
32,400
33,000
Under 20 years
8,200
7,700
5,700
6,300
6,200
6,800
6,000
6,300
6,300
20 to 24 years
22,700
20,500
13 200
14 800
15,300
15,700
15,500
15,000
15,200
25 to 34 years
34,600
33,100
29,400
30,900
32,100
32,700
33,300
32,100
33,200
35 to 44 years
41,200
41,900
36,300
40,400
41,000
41,700
40,400
40,900
40,800
45 to 54 years
40,200
41,300
40,600
41,000
43,100
42,300
43,000
43,000
44,600
55 to 64 years
33,200
33,500
30,800
32,400
33,000
34,500
34,900
35,100
35,100
65 years and over
20,000
23,600
24,000
24,600
24,700
25,100
25,600
25,600
26,200
1. Total income equals market income plus government transfers (including Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, benefits from Employment Insurance, social assistance payments, Canada Child Tax benefits, workers' compensation, GST and HST credits and government transfers).
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0407.
c. Average total income by family types, including transfer payments, 2004 constant dollars, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Economic families, two persons or more
65,100
70,000
67,200
71,200
73,800
75,000
74,800
74,300
76,100
Unattached individuals
28,800
29,700
26,900
29,300
29,300
30,100
30,700
31,300
31,200
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0403.
d. Average after-tax income for economic families of two persons of more, 2004 constant dollars, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Total of quintiles
55,100
56,500
53,900
57,400
59,200
61,500
61,600
61,100
62,700
Lowest quintile
20,400
21,700
18,900
20,500
20,500
22,000
21,500
21,800
22,300
Second quintile
37,900
38,500
34,100
36,800
37,200
38,600
38,500
38,400
39,100
Third quintile
51,100
51,500
47,500
50,500
51,400
53,300
53,300
53,300
54,200
Fourth quintile
65,500
66,600
63,700
67,500
69,000
71,200
71,800
71,300
72,700
Highest quintile
100,500
104,100
105,400
111,600
117,800
122,700
122,800
120,800
125,000
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0701.
e. Percentage distribution of husband-wife families by earnings characteristics1, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
All husband-wife families
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total dual-earner families
55.4
62.6
60.8
62.1
63.0
63.7
63.6
64.3
64.8
Dual-earner families, wife earned more than husband
8.9
11.8
15.7
15.4
16.3
16.3
16.8
18
18
Total single-earner families
33.7
23.0
23.3
22.0
22.1
21.5
22.0
21.6
21.3
Single-earner families, wife sole earner
2.5
3.4
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.3
5
Neither spouse had earnings
10.9
14.4
15.9
15.9
14.9
14.7
14.4
14.1
13.9
1. Includes earnings from both paid employment (wages and salaries) and self-employment.
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0105.
f. Female-to-male earnings ratio1, in percent, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Full-year full-time workers
63.5
65.8
68.3
68.4
70.6
69.9
70.2
70.2
69.9
1. Includes earnings from both paid employment (wages and salaries) and self-employment.
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0102.
g. Prevalence of low income after tax, in percent, based on 1992 low income cut-offs, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
  1981 1989 1997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
All persons
11.6
10.2
15.3
13.0
12.5
11.2
11.6
11.6
11.2
Persons under 18 years
12.4
11.7
17.8
14.4
13.8
12.1
12.2
12.5
12.8
Persons 18 to 64 years
9.9
9.4
15.5
13.4
12.9
11.7
12.1
12.2
11.7
Persons 65 years and over
21.0
11.3
9.1
7.8
7.6
6.7
7.6
6.8
5.6
Males, 65 years and over
14.2
6.1
5.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.4
3.5
Females, 65 years and over
26.3
15.1
11.8
10.3
10.0
8.3
9.7
8.7
7.3
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0802.
h. Prevalence of low income after tax, in percent, by family types, based on 1992 low income cut-offs1, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
All family units
16.2
14.1
20.0
17.5
16.8
15.5
15.5
15.6
15.2
Economic families, two persons or more
8.9
7.5
11.5
9.5
9.0
7.9
8.6
8.5
7.8
Elderly families
9.4
3.7
3.9
2.9
3.1
2.5
2.9
2.7
2.1
Non-elderly families
8.8
8.2
12.7
10.6
10.0
8.8
9.5
9.5
8.8
Two-parent families with children
7.2
6.3
10.3
8.1
8.3
6.9
6.5
6.7
6.7
Lone-parent families
41.0
38.9
45.4
36.1
32.3
30.1
34.2
34
31.7
Male lone-parent families
11.6
11.7
21.4
18.1
12.3
12.3
12.2
12.8
14.2
Female lone-parent families
46.0
42.5
49.3
39.4
36.3
33.8
39.4
38.8
35.6
Unattached individuals
35.5
28.9
37.9
34.0
32.9
30.8
29.5
29.6
29.6
Elderly males
39.0
18.8
17.2
17.2
17.6
16.8
15.9
14.7
11.6
Elderly females
53.5
31.9
23.7
22.3
21.6
18.6
20.7
18.9
17
Non-elderly males
24.8
24.9
39.8
35.4
32.1
30.3
29.0
30.7
31.5
Non-elderly females
35.5
34.1
49.5
43.4
44.3
42.1
39.0
38
38.4
1. Low income cut-offs conveys the income level at which a family may be in straitened circumstances because it is likely to spend 20 percentage points more of its income than the average family of similar size on food, shelter and clothing.
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0804.
i. After tax income distribution, share of after tax income in percent, for all family units, economic families and unattached individuals, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Total of quintiles
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Lowest quintile
5.3
5.6
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.8
4.9
4.9
4.8
Second quintile
11.9
11.6
10.8
10.9
10.7
10.7
10.7
10.7
10.7
Third quintile
18.1
17.6
16.7
16.7
16.5
16.4
16.4
16.5
16.4
Fourth quintile
24.9
24.5
24.5
24.3
24.2
24.0
24.0
24.1
24
Highest quintile
39.8
40.6
43.2
43.3
44.0
44.0
43.9
43.7
44
Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0701.
j. Gini coefficient1 of after tax income, 1981, 1989, 1997, 1999 to 2004
 
1981
1989
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
All family units, economic families and unattached individuals
0.348
0.351
0.385
0.386
0.392
0.392
0.391
0.389
0.393

1. The Gini coefficient measures the degree inequality in income distribution. The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (equal distribution of income across the population) to 1 (one person or household has all the income).

The higher the Gini coefficient the more unequal the distribution of income is. A difference of .01 or more between two Gini coefficients is considered statistically significant.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0705.