Analysis

COVID-19 A data perspective

COVID-19: A data perspective: Explore key economic trends and social challenges that arise as the COVID-19 situation evolves.

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All (54) (0 to 10 of 54 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214417
    Description:

    Without-replacement list sampling with probability proportional to some measure of element size has not enjoyed much application in forestry because of the difficulty of implementing such sample strategies, that have been termed \pi ps designs to distinguish without-replacement sampling from the well-known with-replacement pps designs. In this contribution, an exact \pi ps strategy (Sunter’s variant 2), an approximate \pi ps design (Sunter’s variant 1) and the Rao-Hartley-Cochran random group method are examined and the variances of the respective estimators for total bole volume are computed for four tree populations. The results indicate that compared to the Rao-Hartley-Cochran design Sunter’s variant 1 in general leads to higher precision if the relationship between auxiliary information x_k and target characteristic y_k is loose but is sensitive to the ordering of the sampling frame, whereas the Rao-Hartley-Cochran design does not require the sampling frame to be ordered at all and appears to be superior if strong linear relationships between x_k and y_k are present.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214418
    Description:

    We deal with the nonresponse problem by drawing on the model of selection in phases that was proposed by Särndal and Swenson (1987). To estimate response probabilities, we use the nonparametric approach first advanced by Giommi (1987). We define estimators according to the nonparametric estimation (NPE) model, and we study their general properties empirically. Inference is based on the concept of quasi-randomization (Oh and Scheuren 1983). The emphasis is on estimating the variance and constructing confidence intervals. We find, by way of a Monte Carlo study, that it is possible to improve the quality of the estimators considered by using a variant of the NPE approach. The latter also serves to confirm the performance of regression estimators in terms of variance estimation.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214419
    Description:

    The study was undertaken to evaluate some alternative small areas estimators to produce level estimates for unplanned domains from the Italian Labour Force Sample Survey. In our study, the small areas are the Health Service Areas, which are unplanned sub-regional territorial domains and were not isolated at the time of sample design and thus cut across boundaries of the design strata. We consider the following estimators: post-stratified ratio, synthetic, composite expressed as linear combination of synthetic and of post-stratified ratio, and sample size dependent. For all the estimators considered in this study, the average percent relative biases and the average relative mean square errors were obtained in a Monte Carlo study in which the sample design was simulated using data from the 1981 Italian Census.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214420
    Description:

    The statistical literature contains many methods for disclosure limitation in microdata. However, their use by statistical agencies and understanding of their properties and effects has been limited. For purposes of furthering research and use of these methods, and facilitating their evaluation and quality assurance, it would be desirable to formulate them within a single framework. A framework called matrix masking - based on ordinary matrix arithmetic - is presented, and explicit matrix mask formulations are given for the principal microdata disclosure limitation methods in current use. This enables improved understanding and implementation of these methods by statistical agencies and other practitioners.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214421
    Description:

    This paper discusses testing a single hypothesis about linear regression coefficients based on sample survey data. It suggests that when the design-based linearization variance estimator for a regression coefficient is used it should be adjusted to reduce its slight model bias and that a Satterthwaite-like estimation of its effective degrees of freedom be made. A very important special case of this analysis is its application to domain means.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214422
    Description:

    Dual system estimation (DSE) has been used since 1950 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for coverage evaluation of the decennial census. In the DSE approach, data from a sample is combined with data from the census to estimate census undercount and overcount. DSE relies upon the assumption that individuals in both the census and the sample can be matched perfectly. The unavoidable mismatches and erroneous nonmatches reduce the accuracy of the DSE. This paper reconsiders the DSE approach by relaxing the perfect matching assumption and proposes models to describe two types of matching errors, false matches of nonmatching cases and false nonmatches of matching cases. Methods for estimating population total and census undercount are presented and illustrated using data from 1986 Los Angeles test census and 1990 Decennial Census.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214423
    Description:

    Most surveys suffer from the problem of missing data caused by nonresponse. To deal with this problem, imputation is often used to create a “completed data set”, that is, a data set composed of actual observations (for the respondents) and imputations (for the nonrespondents). Usually, imputation is carried out under the assumption of unconfounded response mechanism. When this assumption does not hold, a bias is introduced in the standard estimator of the population mean calculated from the completed data set. In this paper, we pursue the idea of using simple correction factors for the bias problem in the case that ratio imputation is used. The effectiveness of the correction factors is studied by Monte Carlo simulation using artificially generated data sets representing various super-populations, nonresponse rates, nonresponse mechanisms, and correlations between the variable of interest and the auxiliary variable. These correction factors are found to be effective especially when the population follows the model underlying ratio imputation. An option for estimating the variance of the corrected point estimates is also discussed.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214424
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of important considerations that should be taken into account when developing and designing questionnaires for business surveys. These considerations include the determination of objectives and data requirements, consultation with data users and respondents, and methods for testing questionnaires. In developing and designing business survey questionnaires, focus groups and cognitive research methods help the researcher to identify potential sources of measurement error and to understand the response process that respondents go through in completing the questionnaires. Examples of focus groups and cognitive research undertaken by Statistics Canada are provided.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214425
    Description:

    We present a formal model based sampling solution to the problem of estimating list frame size based on capture-recapture sampling which has been widely used for animal populations and for adjusting the US census. For two incomplete lists it is easy to estimate total frame size using the Lincoln-Petersen estimator. This estimator is model based with a key assumption being independence of the two lists. Once an estimator of the population (frame) size has been obtained it is possible to obtain an estimator of a population total for some characteristic if a sample of units has that characteristic measured. A discussion of the properties of this estimator will be presented. An example where the establishments are fishing boats taking part in an ocean fishery off the Atlantic Coast of the United States is presented. Estimation of frame size and then population totals using a capture-recapture model is likely to have broad application in establishment surveys due to practicality and cost savings but possible biases due to assumption violations need to be considered.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214426
    Description:

    In the MARS Project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing) of the E.C. (European Community), area frames based on a square grid are used for area estimation through ground surveys and high resolution satellite images. These satellite images are useful, though expensive, for area estimation: their use for yield estimation is not yet operational. To fill this gap the sample elements (segments) of the area survey are used as well for sampling farms with a template of points overlaid on the segment. Most often we use a fixed number of points per segment. Farmers are asked to provide global data for the farm, and estimates are computed with a Horvitz-Thompson approach. Major problems include locating farmers and checking for misunderstanding of instructions. Good results are obtained for area and for production of the main crops. Area frames need to be complemented with list frames (multiple frames) to give reliable estimates for livestock.

    Release date: 1994-12-15
Stats in brief (3)

Stats in brief (3) ((3 results))

  • 1. Baby boom women Archived
    Stats in brief: 75-001-X19940041563
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    A comparison of the employment characteristics of women born in the early years of the baby boom with those of women born in the later years.

    Release date: 1994-12-14

  • Stats in brief: 13-604-M1994031
    Description:

    There has been growing interest in recent years about the scope of tourism in Canada. In response to this demand for information, Statistics Canada has developed a Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) which provides some answers to questions such as: Which industries constitute 'the tourism industry'? What are the industry's gross domestic product (GDP) and employment rates? And what is the extent of tourism-related expenditures?

    This article reports on the research that Statistics Canada has undertaken as part of an ongoing examination of the tourism industry.

    Release date: 1994-08-31

  • Stats in brief: 13-604-M1994029
    Description:

    Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts (IEA) covering 1990 to 1993 have been released along with the estimates for the first quarter of 1994. These revised estimates reflect the most current source data and seasonal patterns. The annual revision of the different parts of the System of National Accounts is an integrated process. Revised estimates of two other parts of the system, the Balance of International Payments and Financial Flow Accounts, have been released simultaneously. Corresponding revisions to the monthly estimates of the gross domestic product (GDP), by industry and to the Input-Output Accounts at current and constant prices will be available at the end of August.

    The first section of this paper reviews the current revisions to the GDP and the main aggregates. The second section analyses the revision patterns of selected income and expenditure aggregates of the GDP over the period 1980 to 1993. For further information on sources, methods and definitions employed in the IE A, refer to the Guide to the Income and Expenditure Accounts, Catalogue no. 13-603E, no. 1.

    Release date: 1994-05-30
Articles and reports (51)

Articles and reports (51) (10 to 20 of 51 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214427
    Description:

    A generalized regression estimator for domains and an approximate estimator of its variance are derived under two-phase sampling for stratification with Poisson selection at each phase. The derivations represent an application of the general framework for regression estimation for two-phase sampling developed by Särndal and Swensson (1987) and Särndal, Swensson and Wretman (1992). The empirical efficiency of the generalized regression estimator is examined using data from Statistics Canada’s annual two-phase sample of tax records. Three particular cases of the generalized regression estimator - two regression estimators and a poststratified estimator - are compared to the Horvitz-Thompson estimator.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19940041562
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    David Foot on the baby boom generation's influence on current and future forms of organizational structure in North America.

    Release date: 1994-12-14

  • 13. Adults living solo Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X19940041564
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    A profile of adults aged 30 to 54 living alone, compared with other Canadians the same age.

    Release date: 1994-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19940041575
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    An analysis of families in the top percentile of the income distribution, focusing on their sources of income.

    Release date: 1994-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19940041582
    Geography: Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    An overview of the changing industrial structure in the census metropolitan areas of Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver since 1971.

    Release date: 1994-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994068
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study attempts to compare the earnings of men and women on an equal footing by concentrating on recent postsecondary graduates and using survey data on a number of earnings-related characteristics. The data cover three graduating classes of university and community college students: 1982, 1986 and 1990. These data indicate that the gender earnings gap among graduates has narrowed in recent years. In fact among the most recent class, we found that female university graduates are rewarded slightly better than their male counterparts after controlling for experience, job tenure, education and hours of work. A small gender gap persists among community college graduates: about three-and-a-half percent on an hourly wage basis. For all graduates, the earnings gap tended to increase with age, even after controlling for previous work experience.

    Release date: 1994-11-17

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19940009313
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The sandwich generation, middle-aged people caught between growing children and aging parents, has attracted the attention of the media in recent years. The following text restricts itself to the demographic dimension of the sandwich generation, while at the same time not implying that dimension should be separated from the social and political issues underlying the phenomenon, of concern to individuals.

    Release date: 1994-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994069
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Employment equity legislation is becoming more prevalent in Canadian labour markets, yet -- other than broad availability numbers -- the labour market experiencesof designated groups have not been well documented. Using the National Graduates Survey of 1992, this report profiles the early labour market experiences ofvisible minorities, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities who graduated from Canadian universities and community colleges in 1990. In general, we find thatthe earnings of designated group members are very similar to the earnings of their classmates. However, we also find that members of these groups are more likely tobe unemployed and are less likely to participate in the labour force than others in their class.

    Release date: 1994-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994070
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses job turnover data to compare how job creation, job destruction and net job change differ for small and large establishments in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It uses several different techniques to correct for the regression-to-the-mean problem that, it has been suggested, might incorrectly lead to the conclusion that small establishments create a disproportionate number of new jobs. It finds that net job creation for smaller establishments is greater than that of large establishments after such changes are made. The paper also compares the importance of small and large establishments in the manufacturing sectors of Canada and the United States. The Canadian manufacturing sector is shown to have both a larger proportion of employment in smaller establishments but also to have a small establishment sector that is growing in importance relative to that of the United States.

    Release date: 1994-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994071
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The statistical observation that small firms have created the majority of new jobs during the 1980s has had a tremendous influence on public policy. Governmentshave looked to the small firm sector for employment growth, and have promoted policies to augment this expansion. However, recent research in the US suggeststhat net job creation in the small firm sector may have been overestimated, relative to that in large firms. This paper addresses various measurement issues raised inthe recent research, and uses a very unique Canadian longitudinal data set that encompasses all companies in the Canadian economy to reassess the issue of jobcreation by firm size. We conclude that over the 1978-92 period, for both the entire Canadian economy and the manufacturing sector, the growth rate of (net)employment decreases monotonically as the size of firm increases, no matter which method of sizing firms is used. The small firm sector has accounted for adisproportionate share of both gross job gains and job losses, and in that aggregate, accounted for a disproportionate share of the employment increase over theperiod. Measurement does matter, however, as the magnitude of the difference in the growth rates of small and large firms is very sensitive to the measurementapproaches used. The paper also produces results for various industrial sectors, asks whether the more rapid growth in industries with a high proportion of smallfirms is responsible for the findings at the all-economy level, and examines employment growth in existing small and large firms (ie excluding births). It is found thatemployment growth in the population of existing small and large firms is very similar.

    Release date: 1994-11-16
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