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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114556
    Description:

    In this paper we present some important features of the history of sample surveys in Sweden, and we comment on related developments of sampling techniques (methods and theory) in official statistics. The account is organized into three periods as follows: (i) before 1900; (ii) 1900-1950; and (iii) after 1950. The emphasis is on the third period.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114557
    Description:

    Rolling censuses combine F nonoverlapping periodic samples of 1/F each, so designed that cumulating the F periods yields a complete census of the whole population area with F / F = 1. Intermediate cumulations of k samples would yield samples of k/F for more timely uses (annual or quinquennial censuses). Area sampling frames would cover the national territory for naturally mobile populations. These methods may often be preferable to other alternative methods for censuses, also discussed. Asymmetrical cumulations are also recommended to counter the problems of small sample cells for area domains (provinces, regions, states) common to most countries and to other population units. Split-panel-designs offer another use for cumulating periodic surveys by combining nonoverlapping portions a - b - c - d - with panels p for partial overlaps, pa - pb - pc - pd -, for multipurpose designs.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114558
    Description:

    Drawing upon experiences from developments at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the paper briefly traces some contributions made by practitioners to the theory and application of censuses and surveys. Some guesses about future developments are also given.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114559
    Description:

    The basic theme of this paper is that the development of survey methods in the technical sense can only be well understood in the context of the development of the institutions through which survey-taking is done. Thus we consider here survey methods in the large, in order to better prepare the reader for consideration of more formal methodological developments in sampling theory in the mathematical statistics sense. After a brief introduction, we give a historical overview of the evolution of institutional and contextual factors in Europe and the United States, up through the early part of the twentieth century, concentrating on governmental activities. We then focus on the emergence of institutional bases for survey research in the United States, primarily in the 1930s and 1940s. In a separate section, we take special note of the role of the U.S. Bureau of the Census in the study of non-sampling errors that was initiated in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, we look at three areas of basic change in survey methodology since 1960.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114560
    Description:

    Early developments in sampling theory and methods largely concentrated on efficient sampling designs and associated estimation techniques for population totals or means. More recently, the theoretical foundations of survey based estimation have also been critically examined, and formal frameworks for inference on totals or means have emerged. During the past 10 years or so, rapid progress has also been made in the development of methods for the analysis of survey data that take account of the complexity of the sampling design. The scope of this paper is restricted to an overview and appraisal of some of these developments.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X1990002107
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Many families have low incomes, even if members are active in the work force. Who are the "working poor"? This piece reviews the concepts and measures of low income and examines the labour force participation of families below the low income cut-off.

    Release date: 1990-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X1990002128
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    When it comes to competing with the industrial output of other countries, how does Canada rank? This article examines how successful Canadian manufacturers have been in terms of price competitiveness and productivity during the past decade. The impact of high technology is also discussed.

    Release date: 1990-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X199000214
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Have recent female university graduates been able to narrow the earnings gap between themselves and their male counterparts? This study tackles the question by examining field of study, occupation and other characteristics of graduates

    Release date: 1990-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X1990002143
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    As the need for pension plans and other support systems increases due to Canada's aging population, the proportion of the working-age population (the main contributor to these systems) is dropping. Will Canada face a dependency crisis in the future? This article examines dependency ratio over the past two decades and notes how Canada compares with other industrialized countries.

    Release date: 1990-05-29

  • 7,310. The gift of time Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X199000248
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In 1987, the time contributed by volunteers to various organizations was the equivalent of over 500,000 full-time jobs. This study profiles volunteers and the organizations they serve.

    Release date: 1990-05-29
Stats in brief (1,500)

Stats in brief (1,500) (0 to 10 of 1,500 results)

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201919120684
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-10

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201919121286
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-10

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201919020650
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-09

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X20191903592
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-09

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100003
    Description:

    On June 1st the United States implemented additional US tariffs on selected steel and aluminum products. Tariffs on softwood lumber exports have also been in effect since April 2017. This new table shows economic indicators that Statistics Canada produces for industries impacted by tariffs. Other industries that could be indirectly affected by the tariffs are also included (coal and the automotive industry). 

    Release date: 2019-07-05

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201918620824
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-05

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X20191863587
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-05

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019046
    Description:

    At the 2019 Youth Summit in Ottawa, we asked the Prime Minister's Youth Council to provide feedback on what they would like to know about their generation. We compiled data on the topics of most interest. The data, which are from the Statistics Canada presentation entitled "A Portrait of Canadian Youth: March 2019 Updates" provide information on the diversity of youth, their technology use, their social engagement, and their levels of education.

    Release date: 2019-07-04

  • Stats in brief: 11-631-X2019002
    Geography: Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This presentation on Ethnocultural Diversity and Inclusion in Canada shows an overview of the evolution of ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity and its measurement in Canada, with a focus on one of the country’s largest metropolitan areas: Toronto. It also outlines the inherent challenges and opportunities embedded in the measurement of diversity and highlights some of the very real socio-economic disparities observed on the road to inclusiveness and integration.

    Release date: 2019-07-03

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X20191843612
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-07-03
Articles and reports (5,679)

Articles and reports (5,679) (60 to 70 of 5,679 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2019008
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines how accounting for greenhouse gas emissions as part of economic activity changes the measurement of productivity growth.

    Release date: 2019-05-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019013
    Description:

    The need to measure both the desirable outputs (goods and services) and the undesirable outputs (emissions of greenhouse gases [GHGs] and criteria air contaminants [CACs]) from economic activity is becoming increasingly important as economic performance and environmental performance become ever more intertwined. Standard measures of multifactor productivity (MFP) growth provide insights into rising standards of living and the performance of economies, but they may be misleading if only desirable outputs are considered. This study presents estimates of environmentally adjusted multifactor productivity (EAMFP) growth using a new comprehensive database. This database contains information on GHG and CAC emissions, as well as on the production activities of Canadian manufacturers.

    Release date: 2019-05-08

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100001
    Description:

    Demographers are facing increasing pressure to disaggregate their estimates and forecasts by characteristics such as region, ethnicity, and income. Traditional demographic methods were designed for large samples, and perform poorly with disaggregated data. Methods based on formal Bayesian statistical models offer better performance. We illustrate with examples from a long-term project to develop Bayesian approaches to demographic estimation and forecasting. In our first example, we estimate mortality rates disaggregated by age and sex for a small population. In our second example, we simultaneously estimate and forecast obesity prevalence disaggregated by age. We conclude by addressing two traditional objections to the use of Bayesian methods in statistical agencies.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100002
    Description:

    Item nonresponse is frequently encountered in sample surveys. Hot-deck imputation is commonly used to fill in missing item values within homogeneous groups called imputation classes. We propose a fractional hot-deck imputation procedure and an associated empirical likelihood for inference on the population mean of a function of a variable of interest with missing data under probability proportional to size sampling with negligible sampling fractions. We derive the limiting distributions of the maximum empirical likelihood estimator and empirical likelihood ratio, and propose two related asymptotically valid bootstrap procedures to construct confidence intervals for the population mean. Simulation studies show that the proposed bootstrap procedures outperform the customary bootstrap procedures which are shown to be asymptotically incorrect when the number of random draws in the fractional imputation is fixed. Moreover, the proposed bootstrap procedure based on the empirical likelihood ratio is seen to perform significantly better than the method based on the limiting distribution of the maximum empirical likelihood estimator when the inclusion probabilities vary considerably or when the sample size is not large.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100003
    Description:

    In this short article, I will attempt to provide some highlights of my chancy life as a Statistician in chronological order spanning over sixty years, 1954 to present.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100004
    Description:

    In this paper, we make use of auxiliary information to improve the efficiency of the estimates of the censored quantile regression parameters. Utilizing the information available from previous studies, we computed empirical likelihood probabilities as weights and proposed weighted censored quantile regression. Theoretical properties of the proposed method are derived. Our simulation studies shown that our proposed method has advantages compared to standard censored quantile regression.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100005
    Description:

    Small area estimation using area-level models can sometimes benefit from covariates that are observed subject to random errors, such as covariates that are themselves estimates drawn from another survey. Given estimates of the variances of these measurement (sampling) errors for each small area, one can account for the uncertainty in such covariates using measurement error models (e.g., Ybarra and Lohr, 2008). Two types of area-level measurement error models have been examined in the small area estimation literature. The functional measurement error model assumes that the underlying true values of the covariates with measurement error are fixed but unknown quantities. The structural measurement error model assumes that these true values follow a model, leading to a multivariate model for the covariates observed with error and the original dependent variable. We compare and contrast these two models with the alternative of simply ignoring measurement error when it is present (naïve model), exploring the consequences for prediction mean squared errors of use of an incorrect model under different underlying assumptions about the true model. Comparisons done using analytic formulas for the mean squared errors assuming model parameters are known yield some surprising results. We also illustrate results with a model fitted to data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100006
    Description:

    The empirical predictor under an area level version of the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) is extensively used in small area estimation (SAE) for counts. However, this approach does not use the sampling weights or clustering information that are essential for valid inference given the informative samples produced by modern complex survey designs. This paper describes an SAE method that incorporates this sampling information when estimating small area proportions or counts under an area level version of the GLMM. The approach is further extended under a spatial dependent version of the GLMM (SGLMM). The mean squared error (MSE) estimation for this method is also discussed. This SAE method is then applied to estimate the extent of household poverty in different districts of the rural part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India by linking data from the 2011-12 Household Consumer Expenditure Survey collected by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) of India, and the 2011 Indian Population Census. Results from this application indicate a substantial gain in precision for the new methods compared to the direct survey estimates.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100007
    Description:

    The Horvitz-Thompson (HT) estimator is widely used in survey sampling. However, the variance of the HT estimator becomes large when the inclusion probabilities are highly heterogeneous. To overcome this shortcoming, in this paper we propose a hard-threshold method for the first-order inclusion probabilities. Specifically, we carefully choose a threshold value, then replace the inclusion probabilities smaller than the threshold by the threshold. Through this shrinkage strategy, we construct a new estimator called the improved Horvitz-Thompson (IHT) estimator to estimate the population total. The IHT estimator increases the estimation accuracy much although it brings a bias which is relatively small. We derive the IHT estimator’s mean squared error and its unbiased estimator, and theoretically compare the IHT estimator with the HT estimator. We also apply our idea to construct an improved ratio estimator. We numerically analyze simulated and real data sets to illustrate that the proposed estimators are more efficient and robust than the classical estimators.

    Release date: 2019-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900100008
    Description:

    This paper studies small area quantile estimation under a unit level non-parametric nested-error regression model. We assume the small area specific error distributions satisfy a semi-parametric density ratio model. We fit the non-parametric model via the penalized spline regression method of Opsomer, Claeskens, Ranalli, Kauermann and Breidt (2008). Empirical likelihood is then applied to estimate the parameters in the density ratio model based on the residuals. This leads to natural area-specific estimates of error distributions. A kernel method is then applied to obtain smoothed error distribution estimates. These estimates are then used for quantile estimation in two situations: one is where we only have knowledge of covariate power means at the population level, the other is where we have covariate values of all sample units in the population. Simulation experiments indicate that the proposed methods for small area quantiles estimation work well for quantiles around the median in the first situation, and for a broad range of the quantiles in the second situation. A bootstrap mean square error estimator of the proposed estimators is also investigated. An empirical example based on Canadian income data is included.

    Release date: 2019-05-07
Journals and periodicals (312)

Journals and periodicals (312) (310 to 320 of 312 results)

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-002-X
    Description:

    A quarterly newsletter designed to keep data users and other interested persons broadly informed about the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. It provides updates on survey developments and issues as they arise. Every issue also includes a brief description of newly released documents in the SLID research paper series.

    Release date: 1997-09-09

  • Journals and periodicals: 85-542-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The purpose of this report is to reduce the level of confusion arising from the use of crime data originating from two very different sources (i.e., the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey - UCR and the General Social Survey - GSS) and to inform discussions about which is the better measure of crime. It explains why the findings based on these data sources diverge and summarizes the major differences between the two surveys.

    Release date: 1997-05-14
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