Frames and coverage

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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214422
    Description:

    Dual system estimation (DSE) has been used since 1950 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for coverage evaluation of the decennial census. In the DSE approach, data from a sample is combined with data from the census to estimate census undercount and overcount. DSE relies upon the assumption that individuals in both the census and the sample can be matched perfectly. The unavoidable mismatches and erroneous nonmatches reduce the accuracy of the DSE. This paper reconsiders the DSE approach by relaxing the perfect matching assumption and proposes models to describe two types of matching errors, false matches of nonmatching cases and false nonmatches of matching cases. Methods for estimating population total and census undercount are presented and illustrated using data from 1986 Los Angeles test census and 1990 Decennial Census.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214425
    Description:

    We present a formal model based sampling solution to the problem of estimating list frame size based on capture-recapture sampling which has been widely used for animal populations and for adjusting the US census. For two incomplete lists it is easy to estimate total frame size using the Lincoln-Petersen estimator. This estimator is model based with a key assumption being independence of the two lists. Once an estimator of the population (frame) size has been obtained it is possible to obtain an estimator of a population total for some characteristic if a sample of units has that characteristic measured. A discussion of the properties of this estimator will be presented. An example where the establishments are fishing boats taking part in an ocean fishery off the Atlantic Coast of the United States is presented. Estimation of frame size and then population totals using a capture-recapture model is likely to have broad application in establishment surveys due to practicality and cost savings but possible biases due to assumption violations need to be considered.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214426
    Description:

    In the MARS Project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing) of the E.C. (European Community), area frames based on a square grid are used for area estimation through ground surveys and high resolution satellite images. These satellite images are useful, though expensive, for area estimation: their use for yield estimation is not yet operational. To fill this gap the sample elements (segments) of the area survey are used as well for sampling farms with a template of points overlaid on the segment. Most often we use a fixed number of points per segment. Farmers are asked to provide global data for the farm, and estimates are computed with a Horvitz-Thompson approach. Major problems include locating farmers and checking for misunderstanding of instructions. Good results are obtained for area and for production of the main crops. Area frames need to be complemented with list frames (multiple frames) to give reliable estimates for livestock.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214454
    Description:

    This study covers such imperfect frames in which no population unit has been excluded from the frame but an unspecified number of population units may have been included in the list an unspecified number of times each with a separate identification. When the availability of auxiliary information on any unit in the imperfect frame is not assumed, it is established that for estimation of a population ratio or a mean, the mean square errors of estimators based on the imperfect frame are less than those based on the perfect frame for simple random sampling when the sampling fractions of perfect and imperfect frames are the same. For estimation of a population total, however, this is not always true. Also, there are situations in which estimators of a ratio, a mean or a total based on smaller sampling fraction from imperfect frame can have smaller mean square error than those based on a larger sampling fraction from the perfect frame.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300114472
    Description:

    Two stage random digit dialing procedures as developed by Mitofsky and elaborated by Waksberg are widely used in telephone sampling of the U.S. household population. Current alternative approaches have, relative to this procedure, coverage and cost deficiencies. These deficiencies are addressed through telephone sample designs which use listed number information to improve the cost-efficiency of random digit dialing. The telephone number frame is divided into a stratum in which listed number information is available at the 100-bank level and one for which no such information is available. The efficiencies of various sampling schemes for this stratified design are compared to simple random digit dialing and the Mitofsky-Waksberg technique. Gains in efficiency are demonstrated for nearly all such designs. Simplifying assumptions about the values of population parameters in each stratum are shown to have little overall impact on the estimated efficiency.

    Release date: 1993-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495
    Description:

    The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496
    Description:

    The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553
    Description:

    The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575
    Description:

    The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.

    Release date: 1989-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590
    Description:

    This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.

    Release date: 1988-12-15
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Analysis (52)

Analysis (52) (30 to 40 of 52 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1998005
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All countries that organize censuses have concerns about data quality and coverage error. Different methods have been developed in evaluating the quality of census data and census undercount. Some methods make use of information independent of the census itself, while some others are designed to check the internal consistency of the data. These are expensive and complicated operations.

    Given that the population in each country is organized differently and that the administrative structures differ from one country to another, no universal method can be applied. In order to compare the methods and identify their strengths and gaps, Demography Division of Statistics Canada has reviewed the procedures used in four industrialized countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and, of course, Canada. It appears from this review that demographic analysis can help considerably in the identification of inconsistencies through comparisons of consecutive censuses, while micro-level record linkage and survey based procedures are essential in order to estimate the number of people omitted or counted twice in census collection. The most important conclusion from this review is that demographers and statisticians have to work together in order to evaluate the figures the accuracy of which will always remain questionable.

    Release date: 1998-03-27

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19970023620
    Description:

    Since France has no population registers, population censuses are the basis for its socio-demographic information system. However, between two censuses, some data must be updated, in particular at a high level of geographic detail, especially since censuses are tending, for various reasons, to be less frequent. In 1993, the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) set up a team whose objective was to propose a system to substantially improve the existing mechanism for making small area population estimates. Its task was twofold: to prepare an efficient and robust synthesis of the information available from different administrative sources, and to assemble a sufficient number of "good" sources. The "multi-source" system that it designed, which is reported on here, is flexible and reliable, without being overly complex.

    Release date: 1998-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199500214391
    Description:

    Statistical process control can be used as a quality tool to assure the accuracy of sampling frames that are constructed periodically. Sampling frame sizes are plotted in a control chart to detect special causes of variation. Procedures to identify the appropriate time series (ARIMA) model for serially correlated observations are described. Applications of time series analysis to the construction of control charts are discussed. Data from the United States Department of Labor’s Unemployment Insurance Benefits Quality Control Program is used to illustrate the technique.

    Release date: 1995-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199500214393
    Description:

    Major uncertainties about the quality of elderly population and death enumerations in the United States result from coverage and content errors in the censuses and the death registration system. This study evaluates the consistency of reported data between the two sources for the white and the African-American populations. The focus is on the older population (aged 60 and above), where mortality trends have the greatest impact on social programs and where data are most problematic. Using intercensal cohort analysis, age-specific inconsistencies between the sources are identified for two periods: 1970-1980 and 1980-1990. The U.S. data inconsistencies are examined in light of evidence in the literature regarding the nature of coverage and content errors in the data sources. Data for African-Americans are highly inconsistent in the 1970-1990 period, likely the result of age overstatement in censuses relative to death registration. Inconsistencies also exist for whites in the 1970-1980 intercensal period. We argue that the primary source of this error is an undercount in the 1970 census relative to both the 1980 census and the death registration. In contrast, the 1980-1990 data for whites, and particularly for white females, are highly consistent, far better than in most European countries.

    Release date: 1995-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199500114410
    Description:

    As part of the decision on adjustment of the 1990 Decennial Census, the U.S. Census Bureau investigated possible heterogeneity of undercount rates between parts of different states falling in the same adjustment cell or poststratum. Five “surrogate variables” believed to be associated with undercount were analyzed using a large extract from the census and significant heterogeneity was found. Analysis of Post Enumeration Survey on undercount rates showed that more variance was explained by poststratification variables than by state, supporting the decision to use the poststratum as the adjustment cell. Significant interstate heterogeneity was found in 19 out of 99 poststratum groups (mainly in nonurban areas), but there was little if any evidence that the poststratified estimator was biased against particular states after aggregating across poststrata. Nonetheless, this issue should be addressed in future coverage evaluation studies.

    Release date: 1995-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199500114411
    Description:

    In 1991, Statistics Canada for the first time adjusted the Population Estimates Program for undercoverage in the 1991 Census. The Census coverage studies provided reliable estimates of undercoverage at the provincial level and for national estimates of large age - sex domains. However, the population series required estimates of undercoverage for age - sex domains within each province and territory. Since the direct survey estimates for some of these small domains had large standard errors due to the small sample size in the domain, small area modelling techniques were needed. In order to incorporate the varying degrees of reliability of the direct survey estimates, a regression model utilizing an Empirical Bayes methodology was used to estimate the undercoverage in small domains. A raking ratio procedure was then applied to the undercoverage estimates to preserve consistency with the marginal direct survey estimates. The results of this modelling process are shown along with the estimated reduction in standard errors.

    Release date: 1995-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214422
    Description:

    Dual system estimation (DSE) has been used since 1950 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for coverage evaluation of the decennial census. In the DSE approach, data from a sample is combined with data from the census to estimate census undercount and overcount. DSE relies upon the assumption that individuals in both the census and the sample can be matched perfectly. The unavoidable mismatches and erroneous nonmatches reduce the accuracy of the DSE. This paper reconsiders the DSE approach by relaxing the perfect matching assumption and proposes models to describe two types of matching errors, false matches of nonmatching cases and false nonmatches of matching cases. Methods for estimating population total and census undercount are presented and illustrated using data from 1986 Los Angeles test census and 1990 Decennial Census.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214425
    Description:

    We present a formal model based sampling solution to the problem of estimating list frame size based on capture-recapture sampling which has been widely used for animal populations and for adjusting the US census. For two incomplete lists it is easy to estimate total frame size using the Lincoln-Petersen estimator. This estimator is model based with a key assumption being independence of the two lists. Once an estimator of the population (frame) size has been obtained it is possible to obtain an estimator of a population total for some characteristic if a sample of units has that characteristic measured. A discussion of the properties of this estimator will be presented. An example where the establishments are fishing boats taking part in an ocean fishery off the Atlantic Coast of the United States is presented. Estimation of frame size and then population totals using a capture-recapture model is likely to have broad application in establishment surveys due to practicality and cost savings but possible biases due to assumption violations need to be considered.

    Release date: 1994-12-15
Reference (18)

Reference (18) (0 to 10 of 18 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 98-303-X
    Description:

    The Coverage Technical Report will present the error included in census data that results from either persons being missed (not enumerated) or from persons being enumerated more than once by the 2016 Census. The population coverage error is one of the most important types of errors because it affects not only the accuracy of population counts, but also the accuracy of all the census data results describing the characteristics of the population universe.

    Release date: 2019-11-13

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11-522-X201700014708
    Description:

    Statistics Canada’s Household Survey Frames (HSF) Programme provides various universe files that can be used alone or in combination to improve survey design, sampling, collection, and processing in the traditional “need to contact a household model.” Even as surveys are migrating onto these core suite of products, the HSF is starting to plan the changes to infrastructure, organisation, and linkages with other data assets in Statistics Canada that will help enable a shift to increased use of a wide variety of administrative data as input to the social statistics programme. The presentation will provide an overview of the HSF Programme, foundational concepts that will need to be implemented to expand linkage potential, and will identify strategic research being under-taken toward 2021.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11-522-X201300014269
    Description:

    The Census Overcoverage Study (COS) is a critical post-census coverage measurement study. Its main objective is to produce estimates of the number of people erroneously enumerated, by province and territory, study the characteristics of individuals counted multiple times and identify possible reasons for the errors. The COS is based on the sampling and clerical review of groups of connected records that are built by linking the census response database to an administrative frame, and to itself. In this paper we describe the new 2011 COS methodology. This methodology has incorporated numerous improvements including a greater use of probabilistic record-linkage, the estimation of linking parameters with an Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, and the efficient use of household information to detect more overcoverage cases.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201100211608
    Description:

    Designs and estimators for the single frame surveys currently used by U.S. government agencies were developed in response to practical problems. Federal household surveys now face challenges of decreasing response rates and frame coverage, higher data collection costs, and increasing demand for small area statistics. Multiple frame surveys, in which independent samples are drawn from separate frames, can be used to help meet some of these challenges. Examples include combining a list frame with an area frame or using two frames to sample landline telephone households and cellular telephone households. We review point estimators and weight adjustments that can be used to analyze multiple frame surveys with standard survey software, and summarize construction of replicate weights for variance estimation. Because of their increased complexity, multiple frame surveys face some challenges not found in single frame surveys. We investigate misclassification bias in multiple frame surveys, and propose a method for correcting for this bias when misclassification probabilities are known. Finally, we discuss research that is needed on nonsampling errors with multiple frame surveys.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X2011001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The first issue of the series presents the Conceptual Framework for Culture Statistics 2011, a revision of the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics.

    The conceptual framework contains an official statistical definition of culture and describes a set of culture domains that can be used to measure culture from creation to use.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X2011002
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The second issue of this series is a companion piece to the Conceptual Framework for Culture Statistics 2011, a revision to the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics.

    The guide maps the 2011 Canadian framework for culture statistics to the following Statistics Canada's standard classification systems: the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007, the North American Product Classification System (NAPCS) - Canada (Provisional Version 0.1), National Occupational Classification - Statistics (NOC-S) 2006 and Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), Canada, 2000.

    It contains explanations, definitions and examples of how the classification codes are mapped to the conceptual framework. It also contains a series of tables that contain codes, by classification system, which help illustrate the framework domains and sub-domains, and flags those codes that do not map well to the framework.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This series the Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics 2011 replaces the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics (Catalogue 81-595-MIE2004021).

    The first issue of this series presents the conceptual framework, including a definition of culture, domains and sub-domains, and criteria for their inclusion in culture. The second issue is a guide that maps the conceptual framework to selected standard classification systems. It is intended to foster a standard approach to the measurement of culture in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-567-X
    Description:

    The Coverage Technical Report will present the error included in census data that results from persons missed by the 2006 Census or persons enumerated in error. Population coverage errors are one of the most important types of error because they affect not only the accuracy of population counts but also the accuracy of all of the census data describing characteristics of the population universe.

    Release date: 2010-03-25

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200700210492
    Description:

    Multiple Frame Surveys were originally proposed to foster cost savings on the basis of an optimality approach. As surveys on special, rare and difficult-to-sample populations are becoming more prominent, a single list of population units to be used as a sampling frame is often unavailable in sampling practice. In recent literature multiple frame designs have been put forward in order to increase population coverage, to improve response rates and to capture differences and subgroups. Alternative approaches to multiple frame estimation have appeared, all of them relying upon the virtual partition of the set of the available overlapping frames into disjointed domains. Hence the correct classification of sampled units into the domains is required for practical applications. In this paper a multiple frame estimator is proposed using a multiplicity approach. Multiplicity estimators require less information about unit domain membership hence they are insensitive to misclassification. Moreover the proposed estimator is analytically simple so that it is easy to implement and its exact variance is given. Empirical results from an extensive simulation study comparing the multiplicity estimator with major competitors are also provided.

    Release date: 2008-01-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-394-X
    Description:

    This report deals with coverage errors that occur when persons, households, dwellings or families are missed or enumerated in error by the census. After the 2001 Census was taken, a number of studies were carried out to estimate gross undercoverage, gross overcoverage and net undercoverage. This report presents the results of the Dwelling Classification Study, the Reverse Record Check Study, the Automated Match Study and the Collective Dwelling Study. The report first describes census universes, coverage error and census collection and processing procedures that may result in coverage error. Then it gives estimates of net undercoverage for a number of demographic characteristics. After, the technical report presents the methodology and results of each coverage study and the estimates of coverage error after describing how the results of the various studies are combined. A historical perspective completes the product.

    Release date: 2004-11-25
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