Frames and coverage

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  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20050019452
    Description:

    The redesign of the Dutch Business Register was started for both technical and statistical reasons. The major changes in the new register are the use of the new Dutch Basic Business Register as the source for legal and local units, the inclusion of administrative units in the register and a new automated algorithm to derive the statistical frame from administrative sources.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20050019454
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The goal of the BR Redesign Project is to simplify, optimize, and harmonize its processes and methods. This paper provides an overview of the BR Redesign with emphasis on the issues that affect the methodology of business surveys.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029551
    Description:

    To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units. It can then be considered to select a sample from the available frame in order to produce an estimate for the desired target population by using the links existing between the two. This can be designated by Indirect Sampling.

    Estimation for the target population surveyed by Indirect Sampling can constitute a big challenge, in particular if the links between the units of the two are not one-to-one. The problem comes especially from the difficulty to associate a selection probability, or an estimation weight, to the surveyed units of the target population. In order to solve this type of estimation problem, the Generalized Weight Share Method (GWSM) has been developed by Lavallée (1995) and Lavallée (2002). The GWSM provides an estimation weight for every surveyed unit of the target population.

    This paper first describes Indirect Sampling, which constitutes the foundations of the GWSM. Second, an overview of the GWSM is given where we formulate the GWSM in a theoretical framework using matrix notation. Third, we present some properties of the GWSM such as unbiasedness and transitivity. Fourth, we consider the special case where the links between the two populations are expressed by indicator variables. Fifth, some special typical linkages are studied to assess their impact on the GWSM. Finally, we consider the problem of optimality. We obtain optimal weights in a weak sense (for specific values of the variable of interest), and conditions for which these weights are also optimal in a strong sense and independent of the variable of interest.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20040018752
    Description:

    This paper outlines some possible applications of the permanent sample of households ready to respond with respect to surveying difficult-to-reach population groups.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20040018756
    Description:

    This paper evaluates several approaches that have been used to construct or augment frames for a variety of Statistics Canada surveys. On the basis of these experiences, some good practices for frame construction and use are proposed.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20040027756
    Description:

    It is usually discovered in the data collection phase of a survey that some units in the sample are ineligible even if the frame information has indicated otherwise. For example, in many business surveys a nonnegligible proportion of the sampled units will have ceased trading since the latest update of the frame. This information may be fed back to the frame and used in subsequent surveys, thereby making forthcoming samples more efficient by avoiding sampling ineligible units. On the first of two survey occasions, we assume that all ineligible units in the sample (or set of samples) are detected and excluded from the frame. On the second occasion, a subsample of the eligible part is observed again. The subsample may be augmented with a fresh sample that will contain both eligible and ineligible units. We investigate what effect on survey estimation the process of feeding back information on ineligibility may have, and derive an expression for the bias that can occur as a result of feeding back. The focus is on estimation of the total using the common expansion estimator. An estimator that is nearly unbiased in the presence of feed back is obtained. This estimator relies on consistent estimates of the number of eligible and ineligible units in the population being available.

    Release date: 2005-02-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20030017596
    Description:

    This paper discusses the measurement problems that affected the Demographic Analysis (DA), a coverage measurement program used for Census 2000.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-394-X
    Description:

    This report deals with coverage errors that occur when persons, households, dwellings or families are missed or enumerated in error by the census. After the 2001 Census was taken, a number of studies were carried out to estimate gross undercoverage, gross overcoverage and net undercoverage. This report presents the results of the Dwelling Classification Study, the Reverse Record Check Study, the Automated Match Study and the Collective Dwelling Study. The report first describes census universes, coverage error and census collection and processing procedures that may result in coverage error. Then it gives estimates of net undercoverage for a number of demographic characteristics. After, the technical report presents the methodology and results of each coverage study and the estimates of coverage error after describing how the results of the various studies are combined. A historical perspective completes the product.

    Release date: 2004-11-25

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030026777
    Description:

    The Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey was conducted to estimate the coverage in the 2000 U.S. Census. After field procedures were completed, several types of missing data had to be addressed to apply dual-system estimation. Some housing units were not interviewed. Two noninterview adjustments were devised from the same set of interviews, one for each of two points in time. In addition, the resident, match, or enumeration status of some respondents was not determined. Methods applied in the past were replaced to accommodate a tighter schedule to compute and verify the estimates. This paper presents the extent of missing data in the survey, describes the procedures applied, comparing them to past and current alternatives, and provides analytical summaries of the procedures, including comparisons of dual-system estimates of population under alternatives. Because the resulting levels of missing data were low, it appears that alternative procedures would not have affected the results substantially. However some changes in the estimates are noted.

    Release date: 2004-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030026780
    Description:

    Coverage errors and other coverage issues related to the population censuses are examined in the light of the recent literature. Especially, when the actual population census count of persons are matched with their corresponding post enumeration survey counts, the aggregated results in a dual record system setting can provide some coverage error statistics.

    In this paper, the coverage error issues are evaluated and alternative solutions are discussed in the light of the results from the latest Population Census of Turkey. By using the Census and post enumeration survey data, regional comparison of census coverage was also made and has shown greater variability among regions. Some methodological remarks are also made on the possible improvements on the current enumeration procedures.

    Release date: 2004-01-27
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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214426
    Description:

    In the MARS Project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing) of the E.C. (European Community), area frames based on a square grid are used for area estimation through ground surveys and high resolution satellite images. These satellite images are useful, though expensive, for area estimation: their use for yield estimation is not yet operational. To fill this gap the sample elements (segments) of the area survey are used as well for sampling farms with a template of points overlaid on the segment. Most often we use a fixed number of points per segment. Farmers are asked to provide global data for the farm, and estimates are computed with a Horvitz-Thompson approach. Major problems include locating farmers and checking for misunderstanding of instructions. Good results are obtained for area and for production of the main crops. Area frames need to be complemented with list frames (multiple frames) to give reliable estimates for livestock.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214454
    Description:

    This study covers such imperfect frames in which no population unit has been excluded from the frame but an unspecified number of population units may have been included in the list an unspecified number of times each with a separate identification. When the availability of auxiliary information on any unit in the imperfect frame is not assumed, it is established that for estimation of a population ratio or a mean, the mean square errors of estimators based on the imperfect frame are less than those based on the perfect frame for simple random sampling when the sampling fractions of perfect and imperfect frames are the same. For estimation of a population total, however, this is not always true. Also, there are situations in which estimators of a ratio, a mean or a total based on smaller sampling fraction from imperfect frame can have smaller mean square error than those based on a larger sampling fraction from the perfect frame.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300114472
    Description:

    Two stage random digit dialing procedures as developed by Mitofsky and elaborated by Waksberg are widely used in telephone sampling of the U.S. household population. Current alternative approaches have, relative to this procedure, coverage and cost deficiencies. These deficiencies are addressed through telephone sample designs which use listed number information to improve the cost-efficiency of random digit dialing. The telephone number frame is divided into a stratum in which listed number information is available at the 100-bank level and one for which no such information is available. The efficiencies of various sampling schemes for this stratified design are compared to simple random digit dialing and the Mitofsky-Waksberg technique. Gains in efficiency are demonstrated for nearly all such designs. Simplifying assumptions about the values of population parameters in each stratum are shown to have little overall impact on the estimated efficiency.

    Release date: 1993-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495
    Description:

    The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496
    Description:

    The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553
    Description:

    The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575
    Description:

    The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.

    Release date: 1989-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590
    Description:

    This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214594
    Description:

    A significant increase in coverage error in the 1986 Census is revealed by both the Reverse Record Check and the demographic method presented in this paper. Considerable attention is paid to an evaluation of the various components of population growth, especially interprovincial migration. The paper concludes with an overview of two alternative methods for generating postcensal estimates: the currently-in-use, census-based model, and a flexible model using all relevant data in combination with the census.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800114597
    Description:

    The U.S. Bureau of the Census will use a post-enumeration survey to measure the coverage of the 1990 Decennial Census. The Census Bureau has developed and tested new procedures aimed at increasing the accuracy of the survey. This paper describes the new methods. It discusses the categories of error that occur in a post-enumeration survey and means of evaluation to determine that the results are accurate. The new methods and the evaluation of the methods are discussed in the context of a recent test post-enumeration survey.

    Release date: 1988-06-15
Reference (18)

Reference (18) (0 to 10 of 18 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 98-303-X
    Description:

    The Coverage Technical Report will present the error included in census data that results from either persons being missed (not enumerated) or from persons being enumerated more than once by the 2016 Census. The population coverage error is one of the most important types of errors because it affects not only the accuracy of population counts, but also the accuracy of all the census data results describing the characteristics of the population universe.

    Release date: 2019-11-13

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11-522-X201700014708
    Description:

    Statistics Canada’s Household Survey Frames (HSF) Programme provides various universe files that can be used alone or in combination to improve survey design, sampling, collection, and processing in the traditional “need to contact a household model.” Even as surveys are migrating onto these core suite of products, the HSF is starting to plan the changes to infrastructure, organisation, and linkages with other data assets in Statistics Canada that will help enable a shift to increased use of a wide variety of administrative data as input to the social statistics programme. The presentation will provide an overview of the HSF Programme, foundational concepts that will need to be implemented to expand linkage potential, and will identify strategic research being under-taken toward 2021.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11-522-X201300014269
    Description:

    The Census Overcoverage Study (COS) is a critical post-census coverage measurement study. Its main objective is to produce estimates of the number of people erroneously enumerated, by province and territory, study the characteristics of individuals counted multiple times and identify possible reasons for the errors. The COS is based on the sampling and clerical review of groups of connected records that are built by linking the census response database to an administrative frame, and to itself. In this paper we describe the new 2011 COS methodology. This methodology has incorporated numerous improvements including a greater use of probabilistic record-linkage, the estimation of linking parameters with an Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, and the efficient use of household information to detect more overcoverage cases.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201100211608
    Description:

    Designs and estimators for the single frame surveys currently used by U.S. government agencies were developed in response to practical problems. Federal household surveys now face challenges of decreasing response rates and frame coverage, higher data collection costs, and increasing demand for small area statistics. Multiple frame surveys, in which independent samples are drawn from separate frames, can be used to help meet some of these challenges. Examples include combining a list frame with an area frame or using two frames to sample landline telephone households and cellular telephone households. We review point estimators and weight adjustments that can be used to analyze multiple frame surveys with standard survey software, and summarize construction of replicate weights for variance estimation. Because of their increased complexity, multiple frame surveys face some challenges not found in single frame surveys. We investigate misclassification bias in multiple frame surveys, and propose a method for correcting for this bias when misclassification probabilities are known. Finally, we discuss research that is needed on nonsampling errors with multiple frame surveys.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X2011001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The first issue of the series presents the Conceptual Framework for Culture Statistics 2011, a revision of the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics.

    The conceptual framework contains an official statistical definition of culture and describes a set of culture domains that can be used to measure culture from creation to use.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X2011002
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The second issue of this series is a companion piece to the Conceptual Framework for Culture Statistics 2011, a revision to the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics.

    The guide maps the 2011 Canadian framework for culture statistics to the following Statistics Canada's standard classification systems: the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007, the North American Product Classification System (NAPCS) - Canada (Provisional Version 0.1), National Occupational Classification - Statistics (NOC-S) 2006 and Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), Canada, 2000.

    It contains explanations, definitions and examples of how the classification codes are mapped to the conceptual framework. It also contains a series of tables that contain codes, by classification system, which help illustrate the framework domains and sub-domains, and flags those codes that do not map well to the framework.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 87-542-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This series the Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics 2011 replaces the 2004 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics (Catalogue 81-595-MIE2004021).

    The first issue of this series presents the conceptual framework, including a definition of culture, domains and sub-domains, and criteria for their inclusion in culture. The second issue is a guide that maps the conceptual framework to selected standard classification systems. It is intended to foster a standard approach to the measurement of culture in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-567-X
    Description:

    The Coverage Technical Report will present the error included in census data that results from persons missed by the 2006 Census or persons enumerated in error. Population coverage errors are one of the most important types of error because they affect not only the accuracy of population counts but also the accuracy of all of the census data describing characteristics of the population universe.

    Release date: 2010-03-25

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200700210492
    Description:

    Multiple Frame Surveys were originally proposed to foster cost savings on the basis of an optimality approach. As surveys on special, rare and difficult-to-sample populations are becoming more prominent, a single list of population units to be used as a sampling frame is often unavailable in sampling practice. In recent literature multiple frame designs have been put forward in order to increase population coverage, to improve response rates and to capture differences and subgroups. Alternative approaches to multiple frame estimation have appeared, all of them relying upon the virtual partition of the set of the available overlapping frames into disjointed domains. Hence the correct classification of sampled units into the domains is required for practical applications. In this paper a multiple frame estimator is proposed using a multiplicity approach. Multiplicity estimators require less information about unit domain membership hence they are insensitive to misclassification. Moreover the proposed estimator is analytically simple so that it is easy to implement and its exact variance is given. Empirical results from an extensive simulation study comparing the multiplicity estimator with major competitors are also provided.

    Release date: 2008-01-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-394-X
    Description:

    This report deals with coverage errors that occur when persons, households, dwellings or families are missed or enumerated in error by the census. After the 2001 Census was taken, a number of studies were carried out to estimate gross undercoverage, gross overcoverage and net undercoverage. This report presents the results of the Dwelling Classification Study, the Reverse Record Check Study, the Automated Match Study and the Collective Dwelling Study. The report first describes census universes, coverage error and census collection and processing procedures that may result in coverage error. Then it gives estimates of net undercoverage for a number of demographic characteristics. After, the technical report presents the methodology and results of each coverage study and the estimates of coverage error after describing how the results of the various studies are combined. A historical perspective completes the product.

    Release date: 2004-11-25
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