Frames and coverage

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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214422
    Description:

    Dual system estimation (DSE) has been used since 1950 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for coverage evaluation of the decennial census. In the DSE approach, data from a sample is combined with data from the census to estimate census undercount and overcount. DSE relies upon the assumption that individuals in both the census and the sample can be matched perfectly. The unavoidable mismatches and erroneous nonmatches reduce the accuracy of the DSE. This paper reconsiders the DSE approach by relaxing the perfect matching assumption and proposes models to describe two types of matching errors, false matches of nonmatching cases and false nonmatches of matching cases. Methods for estimating population total and census undercount are presented and illustrated using data from 1986 Los Angeles test census and 1990 Decennial Census.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214425
    Description:

    We present a formal model based sampling solution to the problem of estimating list frame size based on capture-recapture sampling which has been widely used for animal populations and for adjusting the US census. For two incomplete lists it is easy to estimate total frame size using the Lincoln-Petersen estimator. This estimator is model based with a key assumption being independence of the two lists. Once an estimator of the population (frame) size has been obtained it is possible to obtain an estimator of a population total for some characteristic if a sample of units has that characteristic measured. A discussion of the properties of this estimator will be presented. An example where the establishments are fishing boats taking part in an ocean fishery off the Atlantic Coast of the United States is presented. Estimation of frame size and then population totals using a capture-recapture model is likely to have broad application in establishment surveys due to practicality and cost savings but possible biases due to assumption violations need to be considered.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214426
    Description:

    In the MARS Project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing) of the E.C. (European Community), area frames based on a square grid are used for area estimation through ground surveys and high resolution satellite images. These satellite images are useful, though expensive, for area estimation: their use for yield estimation is not yet operational. To fill this gap the sample elements (segments) of the area survey are used as well for sampling farms with a template of points overlaid on the segment. Most often we use a fixed number of points per segment. Farmers are asked to provide global data for the farm, and estimates are computed with a Horvitz-Thompson approach. Major problems include locating farmers and checking for misunderstanding of instructions. Good results are obtained for area and for production of the main crops. Area frames need to be complemented with list frames (multiple frames) to give reliable estimates for livestock.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214454
    Description:

    This study covers such imperfect frames in which no population unit has been excluded from the frame but an unspecified number of population units may have been included in the list an unspecified number of times each with a separate identification. When the availability of auxiliary information on any unit in the imperfect frame is not assumed, it is established that for estimation of a population ratio or a mean, the mean square errors of estimators based on the imperfect frame are less than those based on the perfect frame for simple random sampling when the sampling fractions of perfect and imperfect frames are the same. For estimation of a population total, however, this is not always true. Also, there are situations in which estimators of a ratio, a mean or a total based on smaller sampling fraction from imperfect frame can have smaller mean square error than those based on a larger sampling fraction from the perfect frame.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300114472
    Description:

    Two stage random digit dialing procedures as developed by Mitofsky and elaborated by Waksberg are widely used in telephone sampling of the U.S. household population. Current alternative approaches have, relative to this procedure, coverage and cost deficiencies. These deficiencies are addressed through telephone sample designs which use listed number information to improve the cost-efficiency of random digit dialing. The telephone number frame is divided into a stratum in which listed number information is available at the 100-bank level and one for which no such information is available. The efficiencies of various sampling schemes for this stratified design are compared to simple random digit dialing and the Mitofsky-Waksberg technique. Gains in efficiency are demonstrated for nearly all such designs. Simplifying assumptions about the values of population parameters in each stratum are shown to have little overall impact on the estimated efficiency.

    Release date: 1993-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495
    Description:

    The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496
    Description:

    The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553
    Description:

    The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575
    Description:

    The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.

    Release date: 1989-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590
    Description:

    This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.

    Release date: 1988-12-15
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Analysis (52)

Analysis (52) (40 to 50 of 52 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214426
    Description:

    In the MARS Project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing) of the E.C. (European Community), area frames based on a square grid are used for area estimation through ground surveys and high resolution satellite images. These satellite images are useful, though expensive, for area estimation: their use for yield estimation is not yet operational. To fill this gap the sample elements (segments) of the area survey are used as well for sampling farms with a template of points overlaid on the segment. Most often we use a fixed number of points per segment. Farmers are asked to provide global data for the farm, and estimates are computed with a Horvitz-Thompson approach. Major problems include locating farmers and checking for misunderstanding of instructions. Good results are obtained for area and for production of the main crops. Area frames need to be complemented with list frames (multiple frames) to give reliable estimates for livestock.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214454
    Description:

    This study covers such imperfect frames in which no population unit has been excluded from the frame but an unspecified number of population units may have been included in the list an unspecified number of times each with a separate identification. When the availability of auxiliary information on any unit in the imperfect frame is not assumed, it is established that for estimation of a population ratio or a mean, the mean square errors of estimators based on the imperfect frame are less than those based on the perfect frame for simple random sampling when the sampling fractions of perfect and imperfect frames are the same. For estimation of a population total, however, this is not always true. Also, there are situations in which estimators of a ratio, a mean or a total based on smaller sampling fraction from imperfect frame can have smaller mean square error than those based on a larger sampling fraction from the perfect frame.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300114472
    Description:

    Two stage random digit dialing procedures as developed by Mitofsky and elaborated by Waksberg are widely used in telephone sampling of the U.S. household population. Current alternative approaches have, relative to this procedure, coverage and cost deficiencies. These deficiencies are addressed through telephone sample designs which use listed number information to improve the cost-efficiency of random digit dialing. The telephone number frame is divided into a stratum in which listed number information is available at the 100-bank level and one for which no such information is available. The efficiencies of various sampling schemes for this stratified design are compared to simple random digit dialing and the Mitofsky-Waksberg technique. Gains in efficiency are demonstrated for nearly all such designs. Simplifying assumptions about the values of population parameters in each stratum are shown to have little overall impact on the estimated efficiency.

    Release date: 1993-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495
    Description:

    The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496
    Description:

    The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553
    Description:

    The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575
    Description:

    The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.

    Release date: 1989-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590
    Description:

    This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214594
    Description:

    A significant increase in coverage error in the 1986 Census is revealed by both the Reverse Record Check and the demographic method presented in this paper. Considerable attention is paid to an evaluation of the various components of population growth, especially interprovincial migration. The paper concludes with an overview of two alternative methods for generating postcensal estimates: the currently-in-use, census-based model, and a flexible model using all relevant data in combination with the census.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800114597
    Description:

    The U.S. Bureau of the Census will use a post-enumeration survey to measure the coverage of the 1990 Decennial Census. The Census Bureau has developed and tested new procedures aimed at increasing the accuracy of the survey. This paper describes the new methods. It discusses the categories of error that occur in a post-enumeration survey and means of evaluation to determine that the results are accurate. The new methods and the evaluation of the methods are discussed in the context of a recent test post-enumeration survey.

    Release date: 1988-06-15
Reference (18)

Reference (18) (10 to 20 of 18 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X20000015177
    Description:

    The 1996 Canadian Census is adjusted for coverage error as estimated primarily through the Reverse Record Check (RRC). In this paper, we will show how there is a wealth of additional information from the 1996 Reverse Record Check of direct value to population estimation. Beyond its ability to estimate coverage error, it is possible to extend the Reverse Record Check classification results to obtain an alternative estimate of demographic growth - potentially decomposed by component. This added feature of the Reverse Record Check provides promise in the evaluation of estimated census coverage error as well as insight as to possible problems in the estimation of selected components in the population estimates program.

    Release date: 2000-08-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-370-X
    Description:

    Series description

    This series includes five general reference products - the Preview of Products and Services; the Catalogue; the Dictionary; the Handbook and the Technical Reports - as well as geography reference products - GeoSuite and Reference Maps.

    Product description

    Technical Reports examine the quality of data from the 1996 Census, a large and complex undertaking. While considerable effort was taken to ensure high quality standards throughout each step, the results are subject to a certain degree of error. Each report looks at the collection and processing operations and presents results from data evaluation, as well as notes on historical comparability.

    Technical Reports are aimed at moderate and sophisticated users but are written in a manner which could make them useful to all census data users. Most of the technical reports have been cancelled, with the exception of Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status, Coverage and Sampling and Weighting. These reports will be available as bilingual publications as well as being available in both official languages on the Internet as free products.

    This report deals with coverage errors, which occured when persons, households, dwellings or families were missed by the 1996 Census or enumerated in error. Coverage errors are one of the most important types of error since they affect not only the accuracy of the counts of the various census universes but also the accuracy of all of the census data describing the characteristics of these universes. With this information, users can determine the risks involved in basing conclusions or decisions on census data.

    Release date: 1999-12-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353
    Description:

    This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906
    Description:

    In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19970023620
    Description:

    Since France has no population registers, population censuses are the basis for its socio-demographic information system. However, between two censuses, some data must be updated, in particular at a high level of geographic detail, especially since censuses are tending, for various reasons, to be less frequent. In 1993, the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) set up a team whose objective was to propose a system to substantially improve the existing mechanism for making small area population estimates. Its task was twofold: to prepare an efficient and robust synthesis of the information available from different administrative sources, and to assemble a sufficient number of "good" sources. The "multi-source" system that it designed, which is reported on here, is flexible and reliable, without being overly complex.

    Release date: 1998-03-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5241
    Description: The SRGD is conducting a Global Positioning System (GPS) and digital mapping test to improve Statistic Canada's rural dwelling inventory by collecting dwelling identifiers to be used by field collection staff. In rural areas dwelling identification can be difficult where there is an absence of civic style addresses. The test is evaluating alternative methods for dwelling identification including the collection of GPS coordinates and digital photos using a mapping application and a digital tablet
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