Frames and coverage

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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495
    Description:

    The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496
    Description:

    The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.

    Release date: 1992-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553
    Description:

    The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.

    Release date: 1990-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575
    Description:

    The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.

    Release date: 1989-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590
    Description:

    This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214594
    Description:

    A significant increase in coverage error in the 1986 Census is revealed by both the Reverse Record Check and the demographic method presented in this paper. Considerable attention is paid to an evaluation of the various components of population growth, especially interprovincial migration. The paper concludes with an overview of two alternative methods for generating postcensal estimates: the currently-in-use, census-based model, and a flexible model using all relevant data in combination with the census.

    Release date: 1988-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800114597
    Description:

    The U.S. Bureau of the Census will use a post-enumeration survey to measure the coverage of the 1990 Decennial Census. The Census Bureau has developed and tested new procedures aimed at increasing the accuracy of the survey. This paper describes the new methods. It discusses the categories of error that occur in a post-enumeration survey and means of evaluation to determine that the results are accurate. The new methods and the evaluation of the methods are discussed in the context of a recent test post-enumeration survey.

    Release date: 1988-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198500214373
    Description:

    In the first part of the paper a review of the historical literature concerning microfilmed manuscript census records is given. Several types of sampling designs have been used ranging in complexity from cluster and stratified random sampling to stratified two-stage cluster sampling. In the second part, a method is given to create a public use sample tape of the 1881 Census of Canada. This work was part of a pilot project for Public Archives of Canada and was carried out by the Social Science Computing Laboratory of the University of Western Ontario. The pilot project was designed to determine the merit and technical and economic feasibility of developing machine readable products from microfilm copies of the 1881 Census of Canada.

    Release date: 1985-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198000154835
    Description:

    The Reverse Record Check is the main vehicle used to assess the level of undercoverage in the Canadian Census of Population. A sample of persons is selected from sources independent of the current census and extensive tracing operations are undertaken to determine the usual address of each selected person as of Census day. Census records are then checked to determine whether or not each selected person was enumerated. The tracing is by far the most complex, costly and time-consuming operation associated with this study. It involves extensive use of administrative records as well as tracing in the field. This paper describes the various tracing methods used as well as the success obtained from each of them.

    Release date: 1980-06-16
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Analysis (49)

Analysis (49) (20 to 30 of 49 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20010016296
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) is one of Statistics Canada's most important surveys. It is a monthly survey that collects data concerning the person's labour force status, the nature of the person's work or reason for not working, and the person's demographics. The survey sample consists of approximately 52,000 households. Coverage error is a measure of data quality that is important to any survey. One of the key measures of coverage error in the LFS is the percentage difference between the Census of Population estimates and the LFS population counts; this error is called slippage. A negative value indicates that the LFS has a problem of overcoverage, while a positive value indicates the LFS has an undercoverage problem. In general, slippage is positive, thus meaning that the LFS consistently misses people who should be enumerated.

    The purpose of this study was to determine why slippage is increasing and what can be done to remedy it. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was a historical review of the projects that have studied and tried to control slippage in the LFS, as well as the operational changes that have been implemented over time. The second stage was an analysis of factors such as vacancy rates, non-response, demographics, urban and rural status and the impact of these factors on the slippage rate.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016419
    Description:

    Since some individuals in a population may lack telephones, telephone surveys using random digit dialling within strata may result in asymptotically biased estimators of ratios. The impact from not being able to sample the non-telephone population is examined. We take into account the propensity that a household owns a telephone, when proposing a post-stratified telephone-weighted estimator, which seems to perform better than the typical post-stratified estimator in terms of mean squared error. Such coverage propensities are estimated using the Public Use Microdata Samples, as provided by the United States Census. Non-post-stratified estimators are considered when sample sizes are small. The asymptotic mean squared error, along with its estimate based on a sample of each of the estimators is derived. Real examples are analysed using the Public Use Microdata Samples. Other forms of no-nresponse are not examined herein.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026089
    Description:

    Telephone surveys are a convenient and efficient method of data collection. Bias may be introduced into population estimates, however, by the exclusion of nontelephone households from these surveys. Data from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) indicates that five and a half to six percent of American households are without phone service at any given time. The bias introduced can be significant since nontelephone households may differ from telephone households in ways that are not adequately handled by poststratification. Many households, called "transients", move in and out of the telephone population during the year, sometimes due to economic reasons or relocation. The transient telephone population may be representative of the nontelephone population in general since its members have recently been in the nontelephone population.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20000025531
    Description:

    Information from list and area sampling frames is combined to obtain efficient estimates of population size and totals. We consider the case where the probabilities of inclusion on the list frames are heterogeneous and are modeled as a function of covariates. We adapt and modify the methodology of Huggins (1989) and Albo (1990) for modeling auxiliary variables in capture-recapture studies using a logistic regression model. We present the results from a simulation study which compares various estimators of frame size and population totals using the logistic regression approach to modeling heterogeneous inclusion probabilities.

    Release date: 2001-02-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353
    Description:

    This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1998013
    Description:

    This paper outlines the existing poverty and income measures and summarizes the recent developments of new measures.

    Release date: 1998-09-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906
    Description:

    In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1998005
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All countries that organize censuses have concerns about data quality and coverage error. Different methods have been developed in evaluating the quality of census data and census undercount. Some methods make use of information independent of the census itself, while some others are designed to check the internal consistency of the data. These are expensive and complicated operations.

    Given that the population in each country is organized differently and that the administrative structures differ from one country to another, no universal method can be applied. In order to compare the methods and identify their strengths and gaps, Demography Division of Statistics Canada has reviewed the procedures used in four industrialized countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and, of course, Canada. It appears from this review that demographic analysis can help considerably in the identification of inconsistencies through comparisons of consecutive censuses, while micro-level record linkage and survey based procedures are essential in order to estimate the number of people omitted or counted twice in census collection. The most important conclusion from this review is that demographers and statisticians have to work together in order to evaluate the figures the accuracy of which will always remain questionable.

    Release date: 1998-03-27
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353
    Description:

    This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906
    Description:

    In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19970023620
    Description:

    Since France has no population registers, population censuses are the basis for its socio-demographic information system. However, between two censuses, some data must be updated, in particular at a high level of geographic detail, especially since censuses are tending, for various reasons, to be less frequent. In 1993, the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) set up a team whose objective was to propose a system to substantially improve the existing mechanism for making small area population estimates. Its task was twofold: to prepare an efficient and robust synthesis of the information available from different administrative sources, and to assemble a sufficient number of "good" sources. The "multi-source" system that it designed, which is reported on here, is flexible and reliable, without being overly complex.

    Release date: 1998-03-12
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