Frames and coverage

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All (49) (0 to 10 of 49 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500114149
    Description:

    This paper introduces a general framework for deriving the optimal inclusion probabilities for a variety of survey contexts in which disseminating survey estimates of pre-established accuracy for a multiplicity of both variables and domains of interest is required. The framework can define either standard stratified or incomplete stratified sampling designs. The optimal inclusion probabilities are obtained by minimizing costs through an algorithm that guarantees the bounding of sampling errors at the domains level, assuming that the domain membership variables are available in the sampling frame. The target variables are unknown, but can be predicted with suitable super-population models. The algorithm takes properly into account this model uncertainty. Some experiments based on real data show the empirical properties of the algorithm.

    Release date: 2015-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214128
    Description:

    Users, funders and providers of official statistics want estimates that are “wider, deeper, quicker, better, cheaper” (channeling Tim Holt, former head of the UK Office for National Statistics), to which I would add “more relevant” and “less burdensome”. Since World War II, we have relied heavily on the probability sample survey as the best we could do - and that best being very good - to meet these goals for estimates of household income and unemployment, self-reported health status, time use, crime victimization, business activity, commodity flows, consumer and business expenditures, et al. Faced with secularly declining unit and item response rates and evidence of reporting error, we have responded in many ways, including the use of multiple survey modes, more sophisticated weighting and imputation methods, adaptive design, cognitive testing of survey items, and other means to maintain data quality. For statistics on the business sector, in order to reduce burden and costs, we long ago moved away from relying solely on surveys to produce needed estimates, but, to date, we have not done that for household surveys, at least not in the United States. I argue that we can and must move from a paradigm of producing the best estimates possible from a survey to that of producing the best possible estimates to meet user needs from multiple data sources. Such sources include administrative records and, increasingly, transaction and Internet-based data. I provide two examples - household income and plumbing facilities - to illustrate my thesis. I suggest ways to inculcate a culture of official statistics that focuses on the end result of relevant, timely, accurate and cost-effective statistics and treats surveys, along with other data sources, as means to that end.

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100111443
    Description:

    Dual frame telephone surveys are becoming common in the U.S. because of the incompleteness of the landline frame as people transition to cell phones. This article examines nonsampling errors in dual frame telephone surveys. Even though nonsampling errors are ignored in much of the dual frame literature, we find that under some conditions substantial biases may arise in dual frame telephone surveys due to these errors. We specifically explore biases due to nonresponse and measurement error in these telephone surveys. To reduce the bias resulting from these errors, we propose dual frame sampling and weighting methods. The compositing factor for combining the estimates from the two frames is shown to play an important role in reducing nonresponse bias.

    Release date: 2011-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X200800010972
    Description:

    Background: Evaluation of the coverage that results from linking routinely collected administrative hospital data with survey data is an important preliminary step to undertaking analyses based on the linked file. Data and methods: To evaluate the coverage of the linkage between data from cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and in-patient hospital data (Health Person-Oriented Information or HPOI), the number of people admitted to hospital according to HPOI was compared with the weighted estimate for CCHS respondents who were successfully linked to HPOI. Differences between HPOI and the linked and weighted CCHS estimate indicated linkage failure and/or undercoverage. Results: According to HPOI, from September 2000 through November 2001, 1,572,343 people (outside Quebec) aged 12 or older were hospitalized. Weighted estimates from the linked CCHS, adjusted for agreement to link and plausible health number, were 7.7% lower. Coverage rates were similar for males and females. Provincial rates did not differ from those for the rest of Canada, although differences were apparent for the territories. Coverage rates were significantly lower among people aged 75 or older than among those aged 12 to 74.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X200800010979
    Description:

    Prior to 2006, the Canadian Census of Population relied on field staff to deliver questionnaires to all dwellings in Canada. For the 2006 Census, an address frame was created to cover almost 70% of dwellings in Canada, and these questionnaires were delivered by Canada Post. For the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada aims to expand this frame further, with a target of delivering questionnaires by mail to between 80% and 85% of dwellings. Mailing questionnaires for the Census raises a number of issues, among them: ensuring returned questionnaires are counted in the right area, creating an up to date address frame that includes all new growth, and determining which areas are unsuitable for having questionnaires delivered by mail. Changes to the address frame update procedures for 2011, most notably the decision to use purely administrative data as the frame wherever possible and conduct field update exercises only where deemed necessary, provide a new set of challenges for the 2011 Census.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X200600110420
    Description:

    Most major survey research organizations in the United States and Canada do not include wireless telephone numbers when conducting random-digit-dialed (RDD) household telephone surveys. In this paper, we offer the most up-to-date estimates available from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics and Statistics Canada concerning the prevalence and demographic characteristics of the wireless-only population. We then present data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey on the health and health care access of wireless-only adults, and we examine the potential for coverage bias when health research is conducted using RDD surveys that exclude wireless telephone numbers.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200700210497
    Description:

    Coverage deficiencies are estimated and analysed for the 2000 population census in Switzerland. For the undercoverage component, the estimation is based on a sample independent of the census and a match with the census. For the overcoverage component, the estimation is based on a sample drawn from the census list and a match with the rest of the census. The over- and undercoverage components are then combined to obtain an estimate of the resulting net coverage. This estimate is based on a capture-recapture model, named the dual system, combined with a synthetic model. The estimators are calculated for the full population and different subgroups, with a variance estimated by a stratified jackknife. The coverage analyses are supplemented by a study of matches between the independent sample and the census in order to determine potential errors of measurement and location in the census data.

    Release date: 2008-01-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20050019449
    Description:

    Literature about Multiple Frame estimation theory mainly concentrates over the Dual Frame case and it is only rarely concerned with the important practical issue of the variance estimation. By using a multiplicity approach a fixed weights Single Frame estimator for Multiple Frame Survey is proposed.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20050019452
    Description:

    The redesign of the Dutch Business Register was started for both technical and statistical reasons. The major changes in the new register are the use of the new Dutch Basic Business Register as the source for legal and local units, the inclusion of administrative units in the register and a new automated algorithm to derive the statistical frame from administrative sources.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20050019454
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The goal of the BR Redesign Project is to simplify, optimize, and harmonize its processes and methods. This paper provides an overview of the BR Redesign with emphasis on the issues that affect the methodology of business surveys.

    Release date: 2007-03-02
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Analysis (49)

Analysis (49) (20 to 30 of 49 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-522-X20010016296
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) is one of Statistics Canada's most important surveys. It is a monthly survey that collects data concerning the person's labour force status, the nature of the person's work or reason for not working, and the person's demographics. The survey sample consists of approximately 52,000 households. Coverage error is a measure of data quality that is important to any survey. One of the key measures of coverage error in the LFS is the percentage difference between the Census of Population estimates and the LFS population counts; this error is called slippage. A negative value indicates that the LFS has a problem of overcoverage, while a positive value indicates the LFS has an undercoverage problem. In general, slippage is positive, thus meaning that the LFS consistently misses people who should be enumerated.

    The purpose of this study was to determine why slippage is increasing and what can be done to remedy it. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was a historical review of the projects that have studied and tried to control slippage in the LFS, as well as the operational changes that have been implemented over time. The second stage was an analysis of factors such as vacancy rates, non-response, demographics, urban and rural status and the impact of these factors on the slippage rate.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016419
    Description:

    Since some individuals in a population may lack telephones, telephone surveys using random digit dialling within strata may result in asymptotically biased estimators of ratios. The impact from not being able to sample the non-telephone population is examined. We take into account the propensity that a household owns a telephone, when proposing a post-stratified telephone-weighted estimator, which seems to perform better than the typical post-stratified estimator in terms of mean squared error. Such coverage propensities are estimated using the Public Use Microdata Samples, as provided by the United States Census. Non-post-stratified estimators are considered when sample sizes are small. The asymptotic mean squared error, along with its estimate based on a sample of each of the estimators is derived. Real examples are analysed using the Public Use Microdata Samples. Other forms of no-nresponse are not examined herein.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026089
    Description:

    Telephone surveys are a convenient and efficient method of data collection. Bias may be introduced into population estimates, however, by the exclusion of nontelephone households from these surveys. Data from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) indicates that five and a half to six percent of American households are without phone service at any given time. The bias introduced can be significant since nontelephone households may differ from telephone households in ways that are not adequately handled by poststratification. Many households, called "transients", move in and out of the telephone population during the year, sometimes due to economic reasons or relocation. The transient telephone population may be representative of the nontelephone population in general since its members have recently been in the nontelephone population.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20000025531
    Description:

    Information from list and area sampling frames is combined to obtain efficient estimates of population size and totals. We consider the case where the probabilities of inclusion on the list frames are heterogeneous and are modeled as a function of covariates. We adapt and modify the methodology of Huggins (1989) and Albo (1990) for modeling auxiliary variables in capture-recapture studies using a logistic regression model. We present the results from a simulation study which compares various estimators of frame size and population totals using the logistic regression approach to modeling heterogeneous inclusion probabilities.

    Release date: 2001-02-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353
    Description:

    This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1998013
    Description:

    This paper outlines the existing poverty and income measures and summarizes the recent developments of new measures.

    Release date: 1998-09-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906
    Description:

    In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1998005
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All countries that organize censuses have concerns about data quality and coverage error. Different methods have been developed in evaluating the quality of census data and census undercount. Some methods make use of information independent of the census itself, while some others are designed to check the internal consistency of the data. These are expensive and complicated operations.

    Given that the population in each country is organized differently and that the administrative structures differ from one country to another, no universal method can be applied. In order to compare the methods and identify their strengths and gaps, Demography Division of Statistics Canada has reviewed the procedures used in four industrialized countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and, of course, Canada. It appears from this review that demographic analysis can help considerably in the identification of inconsistencies through comparisons of consecutive censuses, while micro-level record linkage and survey based procedures are essential in order to estimate the number of people omitted or counted twice in census collection. The most important conclusion from this review is that demographers and statisticians have to work together in order to evaluate the figures the accuracy of which will always remain questionable.

    Release date: 1998-03-27
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353
    Description:

    This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906
    Description:

    In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912
    Description:

    Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913
    Description:

    Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19970023620
    Description:

    Since France has no population registers, population censuses are the basis for its socio-demographic information system. However, between two censuses, some data must be updated, in particular at a high level of geographic detail, especially since censuses are tending, for various reasons, to be less frequent. In 1993, the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) set up a team whose objective was to propose a system to substantially improve the existing mechanism for making small area population estimates. Its task was twofold: to prepare an efficient and robust synthesis of the information available from different administrative sources, and to assemble a sufficient number of "good" sources. The "multi-source" system that it designed, which is reported on here, is flexible and reliable, without being overly complex.

    Release date: 1998-03-12
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