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- 41. The creation of a residential address register for coverage improvement in the 1991 Canadian census ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X199200114495Description:
The Address Register is a frame of residential addresses for medium and large urban centres covered by Geography Division’s Area Master File (AMF) at Statistics Canada. For British Columbia, the Address Register was extended to include smaller urban population centres as well as some rural areas. The paper provides an historical overview of the project, its objective as a means of reducing undercoverage in the 1991 Census of Canada, its sources and product, the methodology required for its initial production, the proposed post-censal evaluation and prospects for the future.Release date: 1992-06-15
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X199200114496Description:
The Population Estimates Program of Statistics Canada has traditionally been benchmarked to the most recent census, with no allowance for census coverage error. Because of a significant increase in the level of undercoverage in the 1986 Census, however, Statistics Canada is considering the possibility of adjusting the base population of the estimates program for net census undercoverage. This paper develops and compares four estimators of such a base population: the unadjusted census counts, the adjusted census counts, a preliminary test estimator, and a composite estimator. A generalization of previously-proposed risk functions, known as the Weighted Mean Square Error (WMSE), is used as the basis of comparison. The WMSE applies not only to population totals, but to functions of population totals such as population shares and growth rates between censuses. The use of the WMSE to develop and evaluate small-area estimators in the context of census adjustment is also described.Release date: 1992-06-15
- 43. Sample design of the 1988 National Farm Survey ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X199000114553Description:
The National Farm Survey is a sample survey which produces annual estimates on a variety of subjects related to agriculture in Canada. The 1988 survey was conducted using a new sample design. This design involved multiple sampling frames and multivariate sampling techniques different from those of the previous design. This article first describes the strategy and methods used to develop the new sample design, then gives details on factors affecting the precision of the estimates. Finally, the performance of the new design is assessed using the 1988 survey results.Release date: 1990-06-15
- 44. European experience of using administrative data for censuses of population: The policy issues that must be addressed ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X198900114575Description:
The experience of the four Nordic countries illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of a register-based census of population and points to ways in which the disadvantages can be contained. Other countries see major obstacles to a register-based census: the lack of data systems of the kind and quality needed; and public concern about privacy and the power of the State. These issues go far beyond statistics; they concern policy and administration. The paper looks at the situation in two countries, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the United Kingdom past initiatives aimed at population registration in peacetime foundered and the present environment is hostile to any new initiative. But the government is going ahead with a controversial reform of local taxation that involves setting up new registers. In Australia the government tabled a Bill to introduce identity cards and an associated register, and advanced clearcut political arguments to support it; the Bill was later withdrawn. The paper concludes that the issues involved in reforming data systems deserve to be fully discussed and gives reasons why statisticians should take a leading part in the debate.Release date: 1989-06-15
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X198800214590Description:
This paper presents results from a study of the causes of census undercount for a hard-to-enumerate, largely Hispanic urban area. A framework for organizing the causes of undercount is offered, and various hypotheses about these causes are tested. The approach is distinctive for its attempt to quantify the sources of undercount and isolate problems of unique importance by controlling for other problems statistically.Release date: 1988-12-15
- 46. A demographic approach to the evaluation of the 1986 Census and the estimates of Canada’s population ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X198800214594Description:
A significant increase in coverage error in the 1986 Census is revealed by both the Reverse Record Check and the demographic method presented in this paper. Considerable attention is paid to an evaluation of the various components of population growth, especially interprovincial migration. The paper concludes with an overview of two alternative methods for generating postcensal estimates: the currently-in-use, census-based model, and a flexible model using all relevant data in combination with the census.Release date: 1988-12-15
- 47. Measuring accuracy in a post-enumeration survey ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X198800114597Description:
The U.S. Bureau of the Census will use a post-enumeration survey to measure the coverage of the 1990 Decennial Census. The Census Bureau has developed and tested new procedures aimed at increasing the accuracy of the survey. This paper describes the new methods. It discusses the categories of error that occur in a post-enumeration survey and means of evaluation to determine that the results are accurate. The new methods and the evaluation of the methods are discussed in the context of a recent test post-enumeration survey.Release date: 1988-06-15
- 48. Sampling microfilmed manuscript census returns ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X198500214373Description:
In the first part of the paper a review of the historical literature concerning microfilmed manuscript census records is given. Several types of sampling designs have been used ranging in complexity from cluster and stratified random sampling to stratified two-stage cluster sampling. In the second part, a method is given to create a public use sample tape of the 1881 Census of Canada. This work was part of a pilot project for Public Archives of Canada and was carried out by the Social Science Computing Laboratory of the University of Western Ontario. The pilot project was designed to determine the merit and technical and economic feasibility of developing machine readable products from microfilm copies of the 1881 Census of Canada.Release date: 1985-12-16
- 49. Reverse record check: Tracing people in Canada ArchivedArticles and reports: 12-001-X198000154835Description:
The Reverse Record Check is the main vehicle used to assess the level of undercoverage in the Canadian Census of Population. A sample of persons is selected from sources independent of the current census and extensive tracing operations are undertaken to determine the usual address of each selected person as of Census day. Census records are then checked to determine whether or not each selected person was enumerated. The tracing is by far the most complex, costly and time-consuming operation associated with this study. It involves extensive use of administrative records as well as tracing in the field. This paper describes the various tracing methods used as well as the success obtained from each of them.Release date: 1980-06-16
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Analysis (49) (10 to 20 of 49 results)
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029551Description:
To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units. It can then be considered to select a sample from the available frame in order to produce an estimate for the desired target population by using the links existing between the two. This can be designated by Indirect Sampling.
Estimation for the target population surveyed by Indirect Sampling can constitute a big challenge, in particular if the links between the units of the two are not one-to-one. The problem comes especially from the difficulty to associate a selection probability, or an estimation weight, to the surveyed units of the target population. In order to solve this type of estimation problem, the Generalized Weight Share Method (GWSM) has been developed by Lavallée (1995) and Lavallée (2002). The GWSM provides an estimation weight for every surveyed unit of the target population.
This paper first describes Indirect Sampling, which constitutes the foundations of the GWSM. Second, an overview of the GWSM is given where we formulate the GWSM in a theoretical framework using matrix notation. Third, we present some properties of the GWSM such as unbiasedness and transitivity. Fourth, we consider the special case where the links between the two populations are expressed by indicator variables. Fifth, some special typical linkages are studied to assess their impact on the GWSM. Finally, we consider the problem of optimality. We obtain optimal weights in a weak sense (for specific values of the variable of interest), and conditions for which these weights are also optimal in a strong sense and independent of the variable of interest.Release date: 2006-12-21
- Articles and reports: 11-522-X20040018752Description:
This paper outlines some possible applications of the permanent sample of households ready to respond with respect to surveying difficult-to-reach population groups.Release date: 2005-10-27
- Articles and reports: 11-522-X20040018756Description:
This paper evaluates several approaches that have been used to construct or augment frames for a variety of Statistics Canada surveys. On the basis of these experiences, some good practices for frame construction and use are proposed.Release date: 2005-10-27
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X20040027756Description:
It is usually discovered in the data collection phase of a survey that some units in the sample are ineligible even if the frame information has indicated otherwise. For example, in many business surveys a nonnegligible proportion of the sampled units will have ceased trading since the latest update of the frame. This information may be fed back to the frame and used in subsequent surveys, thereby making forthcoming samples more efficient by avoiding sampling ineligible units. On the first of two survey occasions, we assume that all ineligible units in the sample (or set of samples) are detected and excluded from the frame. On the second occasion, a subsample of the eligible part is observed again. The subsample may be augmented with a fresh sample that will contain both eligible and ineligible units. We investigate what effect on survey estimation the process of feeding back information on ineligibility may have, and derive an expression for the bias that can occur as a result of feeding back. The focus is on estimation of the total using the common expansion estimator. An estimator that is nearly unbiased in the presence of feed back is obtained. This estimator relies on consistent estimates of the number of eligible and ineligible units in the population being available.Release date: 2005-02-03
- Articles and reports: 11-522-X20030017596Description:
This paper discusses the measurement problems that affected the Demographic Analysis (DA), a coverage measurement program used for Census 2000.Release date: 2005-01-26
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030026777Description:
The Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation survey was conducted to estimate the coverage in the 2000 U.S. Census. After field procedures were completed, several types of missing data had to be addressed to apply dual-system estimation. Some housing units were not interviewed. Two noninterview adjustments were devised from the same set of interviews, one for each of two points in time. In addition, the resident, match, or enumeration status of some respondents was not determined. Methods applied in the past were replaced to accommodate a tighter schedule to compute and verify the estimates. This paper presents the extent of missing data in the survey, describes the procedures applied, comparing them to past and current alternatives, and provides analytical summaries of the procedures, including comparisons of dual-system estimates of population under alternatives. Because the resulting levels of missing data were low, it appears that alternative procedures would not have affected the results substantially. However some changes in the estimates are noted.Release date: 2004-01-27
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030026780Description:
Coverage errors and other coverage issues related to the population censuses are examined in the light of the recent literature. Especially, when the actual population census count of persons are matched with their corresponding post enumeration survey counts, the aggregated results in a dual record system setting can provide some coverage error statistics.
In this paper, the coverage error issues are evaluated and alternative solutions are discussed in the light of the results from the latest Population Census of Turkey. By using the Census and post enumeration survey data, regional comparison of census coverage was also made and has shown greater variability among regions. Some methodological remarks are also made on the possible improvements on the current enumeration procedures.Release date: 2004-01-27
- Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020026431Description:
When stand-alone sampling frames that list all establishments and their measures of size are available, establishment surveys typically use the Hansen-Hurwitz (HH) PPS (probability proportional to size) estimator to estimate the volume of transactions that establishments have with populations. This paper proposes the network sampling (NS) version of the HH estimator as a potential competitor of the PPS estimator. The NS estimator depends on the population survey-generated establishment frame that lists households and their selection probabilities in a population sample survey, and the number of transactions, if any, of each household with each establishment. A statistical model is developed in this paper to compare the efficiencies of the HH and NS estimators in single-stage and two-stage establishment sample surveys assuming the stand-alone sampling frame and the population survey-generated frame are flawless in coverage and size measures.Release date: 2003-01-29
- Articles and reports: 11-522-X20010016248Description:
This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.
The Sawmill Survey is a voluntary census of sawmills in Great Britain. It is limited to fixed mills using domestically-grown timber. Three approaches to assess the coverage of this survey are described:
(1) A sample survey of the sawmilling industry from the UK's business register, excluding businesses already sampled in the Sawmill Survey, is used to assess the undercoverage in the list of known sawmills; (2) A non-response follow-up using local knowledge of regional officers of the Forestry Commission, is used to estimate the sawmills that do not respond (mostly the smaller mills); and (3) A survey of small-scale sawmills and mobile sawmills (many of these businesses are micro-enterprises) is conducted to analyse their significance.
These three approaches are synthesized to give an estimate of the coverage of the original survey compared with the total activity identified, and to estimate the importance of micro-enterprises to the sawmilling industry in Great Britain.Release date: 2002-09-12
- Articles and reports: 11-522-X20010016266Description:
This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.
The key measure of Census quality is the level of response achieved. In recent censuses around the world, this level has been in the high nineties percentage range. This was also true of the 1991 Census in Britain (98%). However, what was particularly noticeable about this Census was the differential response rate and the difficulty in effectively measuring this rate. The United Kingdom set up the One Number Census program in order to research and develop a more effective methodology to measure and account for under-enumeration in the 2001 Census. The key element in this process is the Census Coverage Survey - a significantly larger and redesigned post-enumeration survey.
This paper describes the planning and design of the Census Coverage Survey with particular emphasis on the implementation of the proposed field methodology. It also provides a high-level overview of the success of this survey.Release date: 2002-09-12
Reference (5) ((5 results))
- 1. Estimates of the errors in classification in the Labour Force Survey and their effect on the reported unemployment rate ArchivedSurveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980024353Description:
This paper studies response errors in the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and assesses their impact on the unemployment rates published by the Bureau of Labour Statistics. The measurement of these error rates is obtained from reinterview data, using an extension of the Hui and Walter (1980) procedure for the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Unlike prior studies which assumed that the reconciled reinterview yields the true status, the method estimates the error rates in both interviews. Using these estimated error rates, we show that the misclassification in the original survey creates a cyclical effect on the reported estimated unemployment rates. In particular, the degress of underestimation increases when true unemployment is high. As there was insufficient data to distinguish between a model assuming that the misclassification rates are the same throughout the business cycle, and one that allows the error rates to differ in periods of low, moderate and high unemployment, our findings should be regarded as preliminary. Nonetheless, they indicated that the relationship between the models used to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and those measuring misclassification rates of survey data, deserves further study.Release date: 1999-01-14
- Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013906Description:
In sample surveys, the units contained in the sampling frame ideally have a one-to-one correspondence with the elements in the target population under study. In many cases, however, the frame has a many-to-many structure. That is, a unit in the frame may be associated with multiple target population elements and a target population element may be associated with multiple frame units. Such was the case in a building characteristics survey in which the frame was a list of street addresses, but the target population was commercial buildings. The frame was messy because a street address corresponded either to a single building, multiple buildings, or part of a building. In this paper, we develop estimators and formulas for their variances in both simple and stratified random sampling designs when the frame has a many-to-many structure.Release date: 1998-07-31
- Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013912Description:
Efficient estimates of population size and totals based on information from multiple list frames and an independent area frame are considered. This work is an extension of the methodology proposed by Harley (1962) which considers two general frames. A main disadvantage of list frames is that they are typically incomplete. In this paper, we propose several methods to address frame deficiencies. A joint list-area sampling design incorporates multiple frames and achieves full coverage of the target population. For each combination of frames, we present the appropriate notation, likelihood function, and parameter estimators. Results from a simulation study that compares the various properties of the proposed estimators are also presented.Release date: 1998-07-31
- Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19980013913Description:
Temporary mobility is hypothesized to contribute toward within-household coverage error since it may affect an individual's determination of "usual residence" - a concept commonly applied when listing persons as part of a household-based survey or census. This paper explores a typology of temporary mobility patterns and how they relate to the identification of usual residence. Temporary mobility is defined by the pattern of movement away from, but usually back to a single residence over a two-three month reference period. The typology is constructed using two dimensions: the variety of places visited and the frequency of visits made. Using data from the U.S. Living Situation Survey (LSS) conducted in 1993, four types of temporary mobility patterns are identified. In particular, two groups exhibiting patterns of repeat visit behavior were found to contain more of the types of people who tend to be missed during censuses and surveys. Log-linear modeling indicates spent away and demographic characteristics.Release date: 1998-07-31
- 5. A synthetic, robust and efficient method of making small area population estimates in France ArchivedSurveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X19970023620Description:
Since France has no population registers, population censuses are the basis for its socio-demographic information system. However, between two censuses, some data must be updated, in particular at a high level of geographic detail, especially since censuses are tending, for various reasons, to be less frequent. In 1993, the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) set up a team whose objective was to propose a system to substantially improve the existing mechanism for making small area population estimates. Its task was twofold: to prepare an efficient and robust synthesis of the information available from different administrative sources, and to assemble a sufficient number of "good" sources. The "multi-source" system that it designed, which is reported on here, is flexible and reliable, without being overly complex.Release date: 1998-03-12