Employment and unemployment

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  • 41. Gambling [2011] Archived
    Stats in brief: 75-001-X201100411551
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This product presents the latest facts and figures on gambling in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011337
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Over the last three decades, Canada has experienced three recessions: one that started during the early 1980s; a second that began during the early 1990s; and the most recent one, which led to employment declines starting in October 2008. For each recession, this study: a) examines which workers were laid-off; b) quantifies layoff rates; and c) assesses the proportion of workers that found a job shortly after being laid-off. The layoff concept used includes temporary layoffs as well as permanent layoffs.

    Release date: 2011-09-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011093
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report uses data from the 2006 Census of Population to examine the extent to which the location completion of highest postsecondary diploma/degree completion affects the relative labour market success of immigrants to in Canada. Using descriptive and multivariate techniques, different immigrant cohorts are compared to the Canadian-born with respect to labour force status, earnings and the match between occupation and required schooling. In line with prior Canadian research, we find that in comparison with the Canadian-born, immigrants, especially very-recent immigrants, are more likely to be out of the labour force and less likely to be paid employees, even after accounting for a set of pertinent variables drawn from prior research. When employed, they are much more likely to be overeducated and less likely to be correctly matched or self-employed. They are also more likely to face an earnings disadvantage in Canada's labour markets. Location of study plays a role. Those who completed their postsecondary education in the United Kingdom, France, the United States or, to some extent in Germany, were much more likely to do well on Canada's labour markets in terms of employment ratios and earnings, regardless of immigration cohort, compared to those who completed their postsecondary studies in any other foreign country, especially China, the Russian Federation, Pakistan or South Korea. This finding leads us to conclude that many prospective employers who use education to assess the potential productivity of prospective labour market participants may perceive the 'outcomes' of the British, American, French and German postsecondary education systems as having components that are more easily transferable to Canada than the 'outcomes' of the Chinese, Russian Federation, Pakistani and South Korean postsecondary education systems. Our results lend support to the idea that many Canadian employers and several other stakeholders (such as regulatory bodies, assessment agencies, etc.) may not value postsecondary educational qualifications from all source regions equally.

    Release date: 2011-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311539
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study investigates job-related training taken by immigrant employees in Canada. Using the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), it examines the incidence, subject and objectives of, and satisfaction with, job-related training of immigrant and Canadian-born employees. Differences among sub-groups of immigrants are compared, as well as other characteristics related to the incidence of training. Perceptions of barriers to training among immigrants and the Canadian-born are also explored.

    Release date: 2011-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100811537
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All five projection scenarios show the labour force growing by 2031, although the participation rate could fall. The labour force also could be composed of more immigrants and visible miniorities by 2031.

    Release date: 2011-08-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211520
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Research suggests that the division of labour and the role expectations for men and women are continuing to evolve. This may be especially true for Generation Y, those born between 1980 and 1995 and who grew up during a period of changing family dynamics and family formation. Using General Social Survey - Time use data from 1986, 1998 and 2010 this article examines the changes in the participation in, and time spent on paid work and unpaid household work of individuals aged 20 to 29 from three generations' late baby boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. The final section looks at the distribution of time spent on paid and unpaid work within dual-earner couples.

    Release date: 2011-07-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311500
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Self-employment is an important source of jobs for immigrants, more so than for non-immigrants. This article uses data from the Labour Force Survey to examine how self-employed immigrants differ from their non-immigrant counterparts across a number of personal and job characteristics. It also compares the reasons immigrants and non-immigrants report for entering and staying in self-employment, based on data from the Survey of Self-Employment.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111410
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian labour market recently experienced its most significant downturn since the 1990 - 1992 recession. Although employment rebounded more quickly than during the downturns of the early 1980s and early 1990s, the number of individuals without a job remains significantly higher than at the beginning of the downturn. This article investigates how various categories of non-workers grew in the past two years. It also discusses alternative measures of unemployment that include some of these categories in the calculations. Several of the alternative measures also include part-time workers who would prefer to work full time.

    Release date: 2011-02-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011329
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper compares changes in wages of university-educated new immigrant workers in Canada and in the U.S. over the period from 1980 to 2005, relative to those of their domestic-born counterparts and to those of high school graduates (university wage premium). Wages of university-educated new immigrant men declined relative to those of domestic-born university graduates over the entire study period in Canada, but rose between 1990 and 2000 in the U.S. The characteristics of entering immigrants underwent more change in Canada than in the U.S. over the 1980-to-2005 period; as a result, compositional changes in the immigrant population had a larger negative effect on the outcomes of highly educated immigrants in Canada than in the U.S. However, even after accounting for such compositional shifts, most of the discrepancy in relative earnings outcomes between immigrants to Canada and immigrants to the U.S. persisted. The university premium for new immigrants was fairly similar in both countries in 1980, but by 2000 was considerably higher in the U.S. than in Canada, especially for men.

    Release date: 2011-01-14
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200800110614
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) produces monthly estimates of the unemployment rate at national and provincial levels. The LFS also releases unemployment estimates for sub-provincial areas such as Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Urban Centers (UCs). However, for some sub-provincial areas, the direct estimates are not reliable since the sample size in some areas is quite small. The small area estimation in LFS concerns estimation of unemployment rates for local sub-provincial areas such as CMA/UCs using small area models. In this paper, we will discuss various models including the Fay-Herriot model and cross-sectional and time series models. In particular, an integrated non-linear mixed effects model will be proposed under the hierarchical Bayes (HB) framework for the LFS unemployment rate estimation. Monthly Employment Insurance (EI) beneficiary data at the CMA/UC level are used as auxiliary covariates in the model. A HB approach with the Gibbs sampling method is used to obtain the estimates of posterior means and posterior variances of the CMA/UC level unemployment rates. The proposed HB model leads to reliable model-based estimates in terms of CV reduction. Model fit analysis and comparison of the model-based estimates with the direct estimates are presented in the paper.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004022
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This activity focuses on the contribution of immigrants to Canadian agriculture, highlighting which countries they come from and why, and what types of farms they prefer.

    Release date: 2005-01-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X19960042907
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The employment/population ratio is a good barometer of the state of the economy and an important though little-used labour market indicator. This article takes a look at the ratio's strengths and limitations, as well as its variation since 1946. Provincial and international comparisons are included.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11F0019M1995083
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the robustness of a measure of the average complete duration of unemployment in Canada to a host of assumptions used in its derivation. In contrast to the average incomplete duration of unemployment, which is a lagging cyclical indicator, this statistic is a coincident indicator of the business cycle. The impact of using a steady state as opposed to a non steady state assumption, as well as the impact of various corrections for response bias are explored. It is concluded that a non steady state estimator would be a valuable compliment to the statistics on unemployment duration that are currently released by many statistical agencies, and particularly Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1995-12-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X1992004140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study illustrates quarterly trends in unemployment rates based on alternative measures. By all of the indicators studies there was an overall increase in unemployment during the early 1990s.

    Release date: 1992-12-01
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