Employment and unemployment

Key indicators

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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200211639
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article provides an overview of labour market trends in 2011, focusing on changes between December 2010 and December 2011.

    Release date: 2012-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200111612
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Research suggests that the division of labour and men's and women's role expectations are continuing to evolve. This may be especially true for Generation Y, those born between 1980 and 1995, who grew up during a period of changing family dynamics and family formation. This article examines the changes in the participation in, and time spent on, paid jobs and unpaid household work for individuals age 20 to 29 from three generations - late Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y.

    Release date: 2011-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2008008
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    One of the most common terms in economic and social reporting is that of "labour market". This concept is normally used with two main connotations, which to some extent overlap. The first emphasizes a set of employment norms, practices and trends that are in some cases specific to certain occupations or industries. The second connotation emphasizes the spatial dimension of the market, as the geographic area in which a multitude of labour activities occur. In this bulletin, our focus is on this second aspect: we identify a set of self-contained labour areas (SLAs), which in broad terms can be described as geographic spaces in which the majority of the residents in the labour force also have their place of work.

    Release date: 2011-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011339
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines how the risk of job loss and the short-term earnings losses of laid-off workers evolved between the late 1970s and the mid-2000s.

    Release date: 2011-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201101211611
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper reviews trends in the labour force participation rate from 1997 to the third quarter of 2011 and explores possible explanations as to why the participation rate was no longer increasing even before the onset of the 2008-2009 recession.

    Release date: 2011-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211592
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Recent immigrants are having more difficulty adjusting to the Canadian economy than did their predecessors. It is taking newcomers longer to achieve employment and income levels similar to those of the Canadian-born. Using the General Social Survey conducted in 2008, this article examines whether personal networks, along with more typically-used measures of human capital, might explain differences in employment and income levels between immigrants and other Canadians. Are more limited personal networks associated with lower employment rates and incomes among Canada's more recent immigrants?

    Release date: 2011-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100411593
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Following an economic shock affecting a city or region, many residents - particularly those who have just lost their jobs - will likely look to migrate to another region to improve their economic situation. This study uses data from the 1997 to 2008 Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD) to evaluate the impact of regional economic shocks on the migration of residents. In particular, it examines the extent to which a deterioration in the relative economic position of a region and a decrease in personal income are linked to higher probabilities of migration.

    Release date: 2011-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011338
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the labour market benefits associated with becoming a citizen of the host country, in this case Canada or the United States. Recent international research indicates that there is an economic return to acquiring citizenship. In addition, the paper examines the rising gap in the citizenship rate between Canada and the United States and examines the differences in individual and region characteristics of immigrants as a possibility for explaining changes in the citizenship rate gap.

    Release date: 2011-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2008007
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This bulletin takes a value chain perspective and assesses the employment shifts between components of the value chain of natural resource sectors within Canada. The analysis also includes a perspective across regions, with an emphasis on Canada's rural and urban regions to help reveal the relevance of the natural resource sector to the rural economy as well as the contribution of the rural economy to national value chains.

    Release date: 2011-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011094
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Unlike the waves of immigrants who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, those arriving in Canada since the 1970s have possessed relatively high educational levels, making an enormous contribution to the pool of individuals in Canada with postsecondary qualifications. Upon their arrival however, many immigrants initially face difficulties finding employment related to their field of study as well as finding jobs that pay relatively high wages.

    Using data from the 2006 Census of Population, the report presents a profile of internationally-educated paid workers and focus on the different characteristics and determinants more closely associated with an easier integration in the Canadian labour market: How likely are they to be working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation? What is their likelihood of having employment earnings at or above the median level of earnings associated with the occupation corresponding best to their field of study?

    Different aspects are taken into account when examining these labour market outcomes. These include the time elapsed since landing, region of education, type of credential, as well as diverse socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age group, marital status, presence of children, province, territory and area of residence, language ability, and visible minority status. Results for internationally-educated immigrant paid workers are compared to their counterparts with a postsecondary credential earned in Canada and to the Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education.

    Release date: 2011-09-29
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200800110614
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) produces monthly estimates of the unemployment rate at national and provincial levels. The LFS also releases unemployment estimates for sub-provincial areas such as Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Urban Centers (UCs). However, for some sub-provincial areas, the direct estimates are not reliable since the sample size in some areas is quite small. The small area estimation in LFS concerns estimation of unemployment rates for local sub-provincial areas such as CMA/UCs using small area models. In this paper, we will discuss various models including the Fay-Herriot model and cross-sectional and time series models. In particular, an integrated non-linear mixed effects model will be proposed under the hierarchical Bayes (HB) framework for the LFS unemployment rate estimation. Monthly Employment Insurance (EI) beneficiary data at the CMA/UC level are used as auxiliary covariates in the model. A HB approach with the Gibbs sampling method is used to obtain the estimates of posterior means and posterior variances of the CMA/UC level unemployment rates. The proposed HB model leads to reliable model-based estimates in terms of CV reduction. Model fit analysis and comparison of the model-based estimates with the direct estimates are presented in the paper.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004022
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This activity focuses on the contribution of immigrants to Canadian agriculture, highlighting which countries they come from and why, and what types of farms they prefer.

    Release date: 2005-01-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X19960042907
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The employment/population ratio is a good barometer of the state of the economy and an important though little-used labour market indicator. This article takes a look at the ratio's strengths and limitations, as well as its variation since 1946. Provincial and international comparisons are included.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11F0019M1995083
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the robustness of a measure of the average complete duration of unemployment in Canada to a host of assumptions used in its derivation. In contrast to the average incomplete duration of unemployment, which is a lagging cyclical indicator, this statistic is a coincident indicator of the business cycle. The impact of using a steady state as opposed to a non steady state assumption, as well as the impact of various corrections for response bias are explored. It is concluded that a non steady state estimator would be a valuable compliment to the statistics on unemployment duration that are currently released by many statistical agencies, and particularly Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1995-12-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X1992004140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study illustrates quarterly trends in unemployment rates based on alternative measures. By all of the indicators studies there was an overall increase in unemployment during the early 1990s.

    Release date: 1992-12-01
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