Employment and unemployment

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  • Articles and reports: 71-606-X2012006
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using the Labour Force Survey data, this series of analytical reports provides an overview of the labour market experiences of immigrants to Canada. These reports examine the labour force characteristics of immigrants, such as employment and unemployment at the Canada level and for the provinces. They also provide detailed analysis by region of birth and other aspects of the immigrant labour market.

    The first two reports analyzed the 2006 labour market experiences of immigrants. The third one updated many of these characteristics for 2007. The fourth report analyzed immigrants' employment rates in 2007 by region of postsecondary education, while the fifth report examined immigrants' employment quality in 2008. This sixth report examines immigrants' labour market outcomes from 2008 to 2011, with an overview of the recent downturn and its impact on immigrant workers relative to their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Release date: 2012-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2012001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article uses the concept of expected working life, developed in a previous article, and expands it to include involuntary retirements based on certain scenarios. We also examine the effect of level of education on expected working life.

    Release date: 2012-12-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2012027
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    A growing literature has found a positive association between human capital and long-run employment growth across cities. These studies have increased interest in understanding the location choices of university degree-holders, a group often used as a proxy measure of human capital. Based on data from the 2001 Canadian Census of Population, this paper investigates determinants of the location choices of degree- and non-degree-holders. With a multinomial logit model, it tests a series of hypotheses about the differential effects of thick labor markets and amenities on the location choice of these groups across metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in Canada.

    Release date: 2012-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200311698
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the job-search behaviour of the older unemployed by comparing it with that of their younger counterparts, using data from the Employment Insurance Coverage Survey from 2006 to 2010. It looks at age differences in the number of hours spent looking for work and the methods used. It also examines two aspects that may affect the probability of finding a job quickly - looking for work outside one's community and the willingness of the unemployed to accept job offers with a lower wage than in the previous job. Lastly, it examines the level of optimism of the older unemployed about their chances of finding an acceptable job quickly, as well as what, in their view, would help them most in their efforts.

    Release date: 2012-08-22

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-001-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This publication brings together and analyzes a wide range of labour and income data. Topics include youth in the labour market, pensions and retirement, work arrangements, education and training, and trends in family income. One section highlights new products, surveys, research projects and conferences. Another section uses charts and text to describe a variety of subjects related to labour and income. Each winter print issue contains an index of all published articles.

    To find the latest updates on labour market and household issues such as gambling, minimum wage, retirement and unionization, please visit: Topics of interest on labour and income.

    Release date: 2012-08-22

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2012001
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In rural and small town areas, self-employed individuals generally operate small(er) enterprises. Most are unincorporated but some are incorporated. These small(er) self-employment enterprises typically provide important services in rural and small town areas. Examples range from general stores to hair styling salons to plumbing and electrician enterprises to dentists.This bulletin analyzes the relative importance of each of these self-employment businesses in rural and small town Canada. It examines the age structure of self-employed workers to determine whether there is an impending surge of retirements among the rural self-employed.

    Release date: 2012-07-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2012024
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper looks at annual changes in Canadian business sector employment from 2001 to 2009. This period encompasses an expansionary phase (2001 to 2008), followed by a recession (2008/2009). Firm-level data are used to decompose yearly net employment change into gross employment creation and destruction, which makes it possible to measure the size of total annual employment reallocation. These measures of employment turnover are compared across industries and firm size classes.

    Release date: 2012-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200211675
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The NEET indicator - the proportion of youth age 15 to 29 who are neither in education nor employment - is regularly published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to document aspects of the transition into adulthood. The indicator emerged in the United Kingdom in the 1990s in response to concerns about the social exclusion of disadvantaged youth. This paper examines trends in Canadian NEET rates as well as the characteristics and activities of NEET youth.

    Release date: 2012-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012342
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Immigrants in major industrialized countries are disproportionately represented in self-employment as compared to the domestic-born. Using a generational cohort method and data from the 20% sample file of the 1981 Canadian Census and the 20% sample file of the 2006 Canadian Census, this study examines whether the effects of three important determinants of self-employment--expected earnings differentials between paid employment and self-employment, difficulties in the labour market, and ethnic enclaves--differ between immigrants and the Canadian-born, between children of immigrants and children of the Canadian-born, and between children of immigrants and their parents.

    Release date: 2012-04-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012341
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Self-employment has been regarded as an important pathway for many immigrants to engage in the labour market. However, little is known about self-employment among the children of immigrants. Using the 1981 and 2006 Canadian censuses of population and a generational cohort method of analysis, this paper compares the self-employment rates of immigrant parents and the children of immigrant parents when both were 25 to 44 years of age. The focus is on three questions: (1) Are children of immigrants likelier or less likely than immigrant parents to be self-employed?; (2) Are children of immigrants likelier or less likely than children of Canadian-born parents to be self-employed?; (3) Is the generational change in the self-employment rate from immigrant parents to the children of immigrants different from the generational change from Canadian-born parents to their children?

    Release date: 2012-04-16
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X200800110614
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) produces monthly estimates of the unemployment rate at national and provincial levels. The LFS also releases unemployment estimates for sub-provincial areas such as Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Urban Centers (UCs). However, for some sub-provincial areas, the direct estimates are not reliable since the sample size in some areas is quite small. The small area estimation in LFS concerns estimation of unemployment rates for local sub-provincial areas such as CMA/UCs using small area models. In this paper, we will discuss various models including the Fay-Herriot model and cross-sectional and time series models. In particular, an integrated non-linear mixed effects model will be proposed under the hierarchical Bayes (HB) framework for the LFS unemployment rate estimation. Monthly Employment Insurance (EI) beneficiary data at the CMA/UC level are used as auxiliary covariates in the model. A HB approach with the Gibbs sampling method is used to obtain the estimates of posterior means and posterior variances of the CMA/UC level unemployment rates. The proposed HB model leads to reliable model-based estimates in terms of CV reduction. Model fit analysis and comparison of the model-based estimates with the direct estimates are presented in the paper.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004022
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This activity focuses on the contribution of immigrants to Canadian agriculture, highlighting which countries they come from and why, and what types of farms they prefer.

    Release date: 2005-01-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X19960042907
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The employment/population ratio is a good barometer of the state of the economy and an important though little-used labour market indicator. This article takes a look at the ratio's strengths and limitations, as well as its variation since 1946. Provincial and international comparisons are included.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11F0019M1995083
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the robustness of a measure of the average complete duration of unemployment in Canada to a host of assumptions used in its derivation. In contrast to the average incomplete duration of unemployment, which is a lagging cyclical indicator, this statistic is a coincident indicator of the business cycle. The impact of using a steady state as opposed to a non steady state assumption, as well as the impact of various corrections for response bias are explored. It is concluded that a non steady state estimator would be a valuable compliment to the statistics on unemployment duration that are currently released by many statistical agencies, and particularly Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1995-12-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-001-X1992004140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study illustrates quarterly trends in unemployment rates based on alternative measures. By all of the indicators studies there was an overall increase in unemployment during the early 1990s.

    Release date: 1992-12-01
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