Employment and unemployment

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  • 11. The west coast boom Archived
    Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060059196
    Geography: Province or territory, Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This article looks at some of the reasons behind the recent rebound in the British Columbia economy from its doldrums in the 1990s. It also examines how the current boom in British Columbia differs from Alberta and what can be learned from Alberta's experience.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030028448
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This profile gives provincial level information on the presence of teacher-librarians, library technicians and other library staff in Canadian schools.

    Release date: 2005-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030017815
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This article estimates and analyses the economic impact of the culture sector on the economy of Canada's provinces. It measures the contribution of the culture sector to provincial employment and gross domestic product (GDP).

    Release date: 2005-04-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001180
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This study examines provincial differences in productivity (GDP per job) using decomposition and regression analysis. In the first stage of the study, the relative size of productivity differences across provinces is examined. Then, these differences are decomposed into two components - the first is the portion of the difference that arises from industry-mix, and the second is due to "real" productivity differences at the industry level. The paper also examines the contributions of the "new" and "old" economy sectors to differences in provincial productivity. Finally, regression analysis is performed in order to determine the statistical significance of interprovincial productivity differences. The paper finds that British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec do not differ significantly from another in terms of GDP per job after differences in industry mix are considered. Manitoba and the Atlantic Provinces lag behind the others. Most of the difference in the latter two cases stems from "real" differences at the industry level rather than from the effect of differences in industry mix. The Natural Resources sector plays an important role in bolstering the performance of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Release date: 2001-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997106
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    This paper documents job turnover and labour market adjustment activities in the Ontario economy from 1978 to 1993. The following highlights the major findings. Both the permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate vary substantially from one industry to another. In 1992, the permanent layoff and total permanent separation rates ranged from 27.3% and 34.2% in construction to only 1.4% and 9.3% in public services, respectively. The permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate also differ noticeably by gender, age and firm size - in most industries, the rates are higher among male workers than among females, higher among younger workers, and higher among smaller employers.

    While the permanent layoff rate increases during business cycle downturns and decreases during business cycle upswings, the reverse trend is observed with the total permanent separation rate. This is because the quit rate and the other permanent separation rate both decline during downturns and rise during upswings, more than offsetting the opposite trend associated with the permanent layoff rate.

    These univariate-tabulation findings are confirmed in the multi-variate logistic regression results on the statistical determinants of permanent layoffs and total permanent separations. In most industries, after controlling for gender, age, firm size and time periods, the estimated likelihood of permanent layoffs is lower among female workers, decreases significantly with age and firm size, increases during recessions and decreases during recovery and expansion in most industries. The patterns of estimated incidence of total permanent separations are very similar to those of permanent layoffs except that total permanent separations decline during business cycle downturns and climb during business cycle upswings.

    Permanently separated workers have had a much more difficult time in finding employment during the most recent recession than any other time in the past 15 years. Almost 40% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 did not have a job in 1993. This is in marked contrast with the experience of the early 1980s, when 29% of permanently separated workers were jobless 3 years after the separation. A very similar trend is found when the analysis is applied to labour market transitions among permanently laid-off workers.

    There is a great deal of out-of-province migration among permanently separated workers who did find a job. Nearly 45% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 and found a job in 1993 were employed outside of Ontario. An identical proportion of permanently laid-off workers is found to be employed in other provinces.

    Release date: 1997-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012990
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    The first of two features on the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, this article compares the North's economic and employment trends with those in the rest of the country. Occupation, industry and selected population characteristics are also studied.

    Release date: 1997-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022828
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Men constitute a small minority of registered nurses (RNs) in Canada, but their numbers have risen sharply in the last decade. In 1995, almost 4% of RNs were men, up from just over 2% in 1985. The proportion of male nurses is particularly high in Quebec, where the 1995 figure was 8%. Some areas of nursing are more likely than others to employ male nurses: psychiatry, critical care, emergency care, and administration. By contrast, relatively few male RNs have jobs in maternal/newborn care, pediatrics, or community care. Rising male enrollement in college and university nursing programs suggests that men's representation in nursing will continue to rise. The older age profile of male nurses may indicate that some men are choosing nursing as a second career. As well, a shift in the age distribution of male nurses would seem to suggest that those who enter the profession tend to stay. This analysis of the demographic and employment characteristics of male nurses is based on information compiled annually in the Registered Nurses Database maintained by Statistics Canada. Figures on enrolment and graduation in nursing are collected by Statistics Canada as part of annual surveys.

    Release date: 1996-11-18
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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016062
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article highlights the slower pace of earnings growth for Canada as a whole during 2015 and the first half of 2016. It focuses on the impact that lower average earnings in Alberta during this period have had on earnings growth at the national level. The contribution of different industries to lower average earnings in Alberta is examined.

    Release date: 2016-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2013350
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In spite of much anecdotal evidence and some case studies regarding the size and characteristics of the inter-provincial workforce in Alberta, comprehensive information remains scarce. This is due in part to the many challenges faced in trying to enumerate a mobile population. Drawing on administrative data from several sources, including T4 (Statement of Remuneration Paid) and T1 (General Tax Form) files, this report provides comprehensive information on inter-provincial employment in Alberta between 2003 and 2010.

    Release date: 2013-09-04

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2012098
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This report provides a profile of doctoral graduates from Ontario universities in the class of 2005 two years after graduation by examining their demographics and program characteristics. It also analyses their mobility patterns, with a particular focus on graduates who moved to the United States. Finally it examines the graduates' labour market outcomes, including employment rates, income, industry and the prevalence of over-qualification. The report compares the Ontario results with the aggregate results for doctoral graduates from universities in the rest of Canada as well as results from 2 previous cohorts of graduates; i.e. the classes of 2000 and 1995.

    The key data sources are the National Graduates Surveys (NGS) of 1995, 2000 and 2005. Supplementary information is also provided by the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) and the 2006 Census.

    Release date: 2012-07-09

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2010065
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This paper reports on the Human Resource Module (HRM) of the Tourism Satellite Account: A Pilot Study for Ontario developed by Statistics Canada. This pilot study provides detailed information on employment related to tourism in Ontario. Information on wages and salaries, number of jobs and hours worked by occupation are included. The data are also disaggregated by age, gender and immigration status. This study provides a resource for training and planning for tourism in Ontario.

    This study was prepared by Monique Bisaillon of the Research and Development Projects and Analysis Section, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, Statistics Canada. The study was funded through a partnership agreement with the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council and the Ontario Ministry of Tourism.

    Release date: 2010-03-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008318
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    The recent economic boom in the Canadian province of Alberta provides an ideal "natural experiment" to examine immigrants' responses to a strong labour demand outside major metropolitan centres. The key finding of our study, which is based on a unique dataset that combines administrative and immigrant records, is that not only did immigrants respond to the recent economic boom in Alberta, but they responded generally more strongly than non-immigrants. We find, however, a great deal of heterogeneity in the magnitude of the response across different regions and for different categories of immigrants.

    Release date: 2008-12-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2008066
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This study examines the geographic evolution of employment in the Canada's federal core public administration from 1995 to 2006. Evolution of the number of employees in knowledge-based and less knowledge-based occupations and by gender is examined by province, territory and for the National Capital Region. For purpose of comparison, the trends in the general federal government are discussed.

    Release date: 2008-01-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007293
    Geography: Canada, Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In recent years, differences in working hours between Canada and other countries have been the focus of a substantial body of research. Much less attention has been paid to regional differences in work hours, although differences in average annual work hours between some regions are of an order of magnitude that is similar to that of the Canada-U.S. difference. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study examines how much of differences in working time between Ontario and five other regions of Canada can be explained by 'observable' differences, including differences in union status, industrial structure, job conditions and demographic characteristics. 'Observables' were relatively efficient in explaining differences in the shares of individuals working a short year and working a full-year, full-time schedule. However, they were not very helpful in explaining differences in long work hours, did not entirely explain the larger share of short-year workers in the Atlantic and in British Columbia, and did not explain the huge popularity of the 'low' full-year, full-time schedule in Quebec. These differences that remain unexplained suggest that 'unobservable' factors (those that are difficult to observe in household surveys) also contribute to regional differences in work hours. These include incentives related to wage inequality, possible tax incentives (or disincentives) built upon progressive taxation policies, differences in job conditions, in preferences and tastes, and in the shape of institutions.

    Release date: 2007-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006052
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    The 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (NSWHN) represents a collaborative effort involving the Canadian Institute for Health Information, Health Canada, and Statistics Canada.

    The NSWHN was designed to examine links between the work environment and the health of regulated nurses in Canada, and is the first nationally representative survey of its kind. The survey's high response rate (80%) reflects the enthusiasm with which nurses involved themselves in the survey.

    Nearly 19,000 regulated nurses, representing registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered psychiatric nurses (RPNs) across the country were interviewed on a variety of topics, including the conditions in which they practice, the challenges they face in doing their jobs, and their physical and mental wellbeing.

    They shared their perceptions of work organization, including staffing, shift work, overtime and employee support. Nurses were also asked about work stress, role overload, respect, and quality of patient care. Information about their health status, such as chronic conditions, pain, self-perceived general and mental health, medication use, and the impact of health on the performance of nursing duties, was also collected.

    This document presents key findings from the 2005 NSWHN for each province, as well as for the three territories combined.

    Release date: 2006-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006280
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Before 1989, childless social assistance recipients in Quebec under age 30 received much lower benefits than recipients over age 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment. The estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-differences estimators may perform poorly with inappropriately chosen control groups.

    Release date: 2006-06-14
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