Employment and unemployment

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2013350
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In spite of much anecdotal evidence and some case studies regarding the size and characteristics of the inter-provincial workforce in Alberta, comprehensive information remains scarce. This is due in part to the many challenges faced in trying to enumerate a mobile population. Drawing on administrative data from several sources, including T4 (Statement of Remuneration Paid) and T1 (General Tax Form) files, this report provides comprehensive information on inter-provincial employment in Alberta between 2003 and 2010.

    Release date: 2013-09-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2008066
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This study examines the geographic evolution of employment in the Canada's federal core public administration from 1995 to 2006. Evolution of the number of employees in knowledge-based and less knowledge-based occupations and by gender is examined by province, territory and for the National Capital Region. For purpose of comparison, the trends in the general federal government are discussed.

    Release date: 2008-01-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007293
    Geography: Canada, Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In recent years, differences in working hours between Canada and other countries have been the focus of a substantial body of research. Much less attention has been paid to regional differences in work hours, although differences in average annual work hours between some regions are of an order of magnitude that is similar to that of the Canada-U.S. difference. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study examines how much of differences in working time between Ontario and five other regions of Canada can be explained by 'observable' differences, including differences in union status, industrial structure, job conditions and demographic characteristics. 'Observables' were relatively efficient in explaining differences in the shares of individuals working a short year and working a full-year, full-time schedule. However, they were not very helpful in explaining differences in long work hours, did not entirely explain the larger share of short-year workers in the Atlantic and in British Columbia, and did not explain the huge popularity of the 'low' full-year, full-time schedule in Quebec. These differences that remain unexplained suggest that 'unobservable' factors (those that are difficult to observe in household surveys) also contribute to regional differences in work hours. These include incentives related to wage inequality, possible tax incentives (or disincentives) built upon progressive taxation policies, differences in job conditions, in preferences and tastes, and in the shape of institutions.

    Release date: 2007-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997106
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    This paper documents job turnover and labour market adjustment activities in the Ontario economy from 1978 to 1993. The following highlights the major findings. Both the permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate vary substantially from one industry to another. In 1992, the permanent layoff and total permanent separation rates ranged from 27.3% and 34.2% in construction to only 1.4% and 9.3% in public services, respectively. The permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate also differ noticeably by gender, age and firm size - in most industries, the rates are higher among male workers than among females, higher among younger workers, and higher among smaller employers.

    While the permanent layoff rate increases during business cycle downturns and decreases during business cycle upswings, the reverse trend is observed with the total permanent separation rate. This is because the quit rate and the other permanent separation rate both decline during downturns and rise during upswings, more than offsetting the opposite trend associated with the permanent layoff rate.

    These univariate-tabulation findings are confirmed in the multi-variate logistic regression results on the statistical determinants of permanent layoffs and total permanent separations. In most industries, after controlling for gender, age, firm size and time periods, the estimated likelihood of permanent layoffs is lower among female workers, decreases significantly with age and firm size, increases during recessions and decreases during recovery and expansion in most industries. The patterns of estimated incidence of total permanent separations are very similar to those of permanent layoffs except that total permanent separations decline during business cycle downturns and climb during business cycle upswings.

    Permanently separated workers have had a much more difficult time in finding employment during the most recent recession than any other time in the past 15 years. Almost 40% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 did not have a job in 1993. This is in marked contrast with the experience of the early 1980s, when 29% of permanently separated workers were jobless 3 years after the separation. A very similar trend is found when the analysis is applied to labour market transitions among permanently laid-off workers.

    There is a great deal of out-of-province migration among permanently separated workers who did find a job. Nearly 45% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 and found a job in 1993 were employed outside of Ontario. An identical proportion of permanently laid-off workers is found to be employed in other provinces.

    Release date: 1997-10-31
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Analysis (4)

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2013350
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In spite of much anecdotal evidence and some case studies regarding the size and characteristics of the inter-provincial workforce in Alberta, comprehensive information remains scarce. This is due in part to the many challenges faced in trying to enumerate a mobile population. Drawing on administrative data from several sources, including T4 (Statement of Remuneration Paid) and T1 (General Tax Form) files, this report provides comprehensive information on inter-provincial employment in Alberta between 2003 and 2010.

    Release date: 2013-09-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2008066
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory, Census metropolitan area
    Description:

    This study examines the geographic evolution of employment in the Canada's federal core public administration from 1995 to 2006. Evolution of the number of employees in knowledge-based and less knowledge-based occupations and by gender is examined by province, territory and for the National Capital Region. For purpose of comparison, the trends in the general federal government are discussed.

    Release date: 2008-01-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007293
    Geography: Canada, Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    In recent years, differences in working hours between Canada and other countries have been the focus of a substantial body of research. Much less attention has been paid to regional differences in work hours, although differences in average annual work hours between some regions are of an order of magnitude that is similar to that of the Canada-U.S. difference. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study examines how much of differences in working time between Ontario and five other regions of Canada can be explained by 'observable' differences, including differences in union status, industrial structure, job conditions and demographic characteristics. 'Observables' were relatively efficient in explaining differences in the shares of individuals working a short year and working a full-year, full-time schedule. However, they were not very helpful in explaining differences in long work hours, did not entirely explain the larger share of short-year workers in the Atlantic and in British Columbia, and did not explain the huge popularity of the 'low' full-year, full-time schedule in Quebec. These differences that remain unexplained suggest that 'unobservable' factors (those that are difficult to observe in household surveys) also contribute to regional differences in work hours. These include incentives related to wage inequality, possible tax incentives (or disincentives) built upon progressive taxation policies, differences in job conditions, in preferences and tastes, and in the shape of institutions.

    Release date: 2007-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997106
    Geography: Canada, Province or territory
    Description:

    This paper documents job turnover and labour market adjustment activities in the Ontario economy from 1978 to 1993. The following highlights the major findings. Both the permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate vary substantially from one industry to another. In 1992, the permanent layoff and total permanent separation rates ranged from 27.3% and 34.2% in construction to only 1.4% and 9.3% in public services, respectively. The permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate also differ noticeably by gender, age and firm size - in most industries, the rates are higher among male workers than among females, higher among younger workers, and higher among smaller employers.

    While the permanent layoff rate increases during business cycle downturns and decreases during business cycle upswings, the reverse trend is observed with the total permanent separation rate. This is because the quit rate and the other permanent separation rate both decline during downturns and rise during upswings, more than offsetting the opposite trend associated with the permanent layoff rate.

    These univariate-tabulation findings are confirmed in the multi-variate logistic regression results on the statistical determinants of permanent layoffs and total permanent separations. In most industries, after controlling for gender, age, firm size and time periods, the estimated likelihood of permanent layoffs is lower among female workers, decreases significantly with age and firm size, increases during recessions and decreases during recovery and expansion in most industries. The patterns of estimated incidence of total permanent separations are very similar to those of permanent layoffs except that total permanent separations decline during business cycle downturns and climb during business cycle upswings.

    Permanently separated workers have had a much more difficult time in finding employment during the most recent recession than any other time in the past 15 years. Almost 40% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 did not have a job in 1993. This is in marked contrast with the experience of the early 1980s, when 29% of permanently separated workers were jobless 3 years after the separation. A very similar trend is found when the analysis is applied to labour market transitions among permanently laid-off workers.

    There is a great deal of out-of-province migration among permanently separated workers who did find a job. Nearly 45% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 and found a job in 1993 were employed outside of Ontario. An identical proportion of permanently laid-off workers is found to be employed in other provinces.

    Release date: 1997-10-31
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