Earnings, wages and non-wage benefits

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998126
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Controlling for observable worker attributes, we find that computer use is associated with a wage premium of at most 14%. Following Dinardo and Pischke (1997), we examine the wage premium associated with other tools used on the job. While these authors find a significant wage premium for the use of pencils or for sitting down while working, we find a substantial and robust wage premium for the use of a fax machine. Using a variety of reasonable specifications of wage equations including both a computer use indicator and a fax use indicator, we consistently find a stronger effect for fax machines than for computers. Along with Dinardo and Pischke (1997), we argue that workers who use computers earn more than other employees not because of their computing skills per se, but rather because they have more other unobserved skills - innate or learned through school - than other employees.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Table: 95F0248X1996001
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-08-28

  • Table: 95F0248X1996002
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-08-28

  • Table: 95F0248X1996004
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-08-28

  • Table: 95F0248X1996005
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-08-28

  • Table: 95F0248X1996003
    Description:

    Series Description - The Basic Summary Tabulations Series (1996 Census of Population) provides data based on approximately 75 cross-tabulations of three or four census variables at five very detailed levels of geography. This series shows specific characteristics of the Canadian population considered either as individuals or in terms of their family or household relations, or with a characteristic pertaining to Canadian dwellings. The BSTs provide data based on a 20% sample except for Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Status which are collected from a 100% sample.

    These tables are available on diskette and cover all census variable information such as Demographics; Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages (e.g. Mother Tongue); Aboriginal Origins, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; as well as Individual and Family Income.

    For ease in understanding the five levels of geography, the OLC numbers have related the last 3 digits to reflect the different geographies. See the information below.

    **Under Geographic Coverage, we have listed the five geographies with OLC numbers.

    BSTs ending with the following OLC #s represent:

    001 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions002 - Census Metropolitan Areas, Tracted Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts003 - Canada, Provinces, Territories, Federal Electoral Districts (1987 Representation Order) and Enumeration Areas004 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (1996 Representation Order)005 - Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas

    Release date: 1998-08-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998112
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The study examines the reason for the significant increase in the 'age premium' over the period 1981-94. The age premium refers to the percentage difference in hourly earnings between 'younger' (25-34) and 'older' (45-54) workers. In 1994, the hourly rate of older males was 32.4% higher than that of younger males. The corresponding age premium among females was 15.5%. Over the period 1981-94, the age premium increased by 15.7 percentage points among males and 19.5 percentage points among females.

    Evidence based on analysis of the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) public use microdata shows that, while there has been a trend toward non-standard employment, this so far has affected mostly workers under age 25 and cannot explain the rise in the age premium between ages 25-to-34 and 45-to-54, which is the focus of this study.

    A more likely explanation identified by the study is the dramatic improvement in the level of education of older workers over the last 14 years. For example, from 1981 to 1994 the percentage of older male workers with grade 10 education or less declined from 41.9% to 19.6%, while the percentage with post-secondary diplomas and degrees increased from 32.1% to 51.7%. The education level of younger male workers also improved over the same period, but the rate of improvement was smaller and, by 1994, there was virtually no difference in the incidence of post-secondary diplomas and degrees between younger and older workers. Similar trends took place among female workers. Shift-share analysis shows that the narrowing of the education gap between older and younger workers explains 44% of the age premium rise among male employees and 50% of the age premium rise among female employees.

    Release date: 1998-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998116
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The increase in earnings inequality among men in particular in Canada has been well documented. This paper adds to our knowledge of inequality trends by addressing three issues. First, what has happened to earnings inequality among the employed population in the 1990s? We find that earnings inequality and polarization increased little in the population of all workers (men and women combined) between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. The second question relates to the impact of the changing propensity of Canadians to hold a job on earnings inequality. Put another way, if we focus on the entire population of working age Canadians (those with and without paid employment), what are the inequality trends. We find that earnings inequality among the working age population changed little over the 1980s and 1990s. This analysis incorporates both the influence of the changing employment/population ratio and inequality trends among employed workers on overall earnings inequality among the working age population. But this relative stability in overall earnings inequality since the mid-1980s masks a number of offsetting underlying trends. Some groups of workers are making earnings gains (notably older workers, and women) while others are losing (notably younger workers and men). This paper focuses in particular on the earnings trends among younger workers, and finds that the decline in annual earnings of younger male workers in particular is associated with a decline in real hourly wages.

    Release date: 1998-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M1998003
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study provides an in-depth exploration of the links between literacy and economic security.

    Release date: 1998-05-27

  • Table: 93F0029X1996003
    Description:

    Series Description - The Nation Series (1996 Census of Population) is the first released series where basic data at a high level of geography are presented on variables collected by the 1996 Census.There are a total of 143 tables in the Nation Series which cover all census variables.The Complete Edition CDROM, Catalogue number 93F0020XCB96004 contains the cumulative set of all data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs.This comprehensive CDROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes:Demographic information (100% data only for Age and Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions); Families (Number, Type and Structure); Structural Type of Dwelling and Household Size; Immigration and Citizenship; Languages; Aboriginal Origin, Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities (Population Groups); Labour Market Activities and Household Activities (unpaid work); Place of Work and Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Family, Dwellings and Household Information; as well as Individual and Family Income. Selected variables, such as occupation, are available to illustrate the analytical potential of the data based on cross-tabulations (i.e. sex by age and occupation).These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available at the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-05-12
Data (374)

Data (374) (0 to 10 of 374 results)

Analysis (279)

Analysis (279) (20 to 30 of 279 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100015
    Description:

    Previous research has suggested that skills acquired at a young age, such as reading or math skills, may have an impact on the early labour market outcomes of individuals. In this study, tax data linked to the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are used to examine the association between background factors at age 15 (including reading proficiency) and employment earnings in young adulthood for a cohort of respondents who were aged 15 in 2000.

    Release date: 2019-10-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201929020844
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-10-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2019065
    Description:

    Based on data from the Labour Force Survey, this infographic highlights the gender wage gap and its sources in 2018.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201928021026
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019004
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the gender wage gap in Canada from 1998 to 2018 among employees aged 25 to 54. The contributions of various characteristics to the gap, and to the changes in the gap, are examined using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition on hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey.

    Release date: 2019-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201925421025
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019003
    Description:

    This report looks at the evolution of minimum wage prevalence over the last 20 years, using annual estimates from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It examines changes in the profile of minimum wage employees, first through a series of gradual minimum wage increases observed from 1998 to 2017, followed by notable increases in 2018. It then looks at changes in the average minimum wage in Canada compared with the average hourly wages for all employees.

    Release date: 2019-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15
Reference (32)

Reference (32) (0 to 10 of 32 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 37-20-00012019002
    Description:

    This technical reference guide is intended for users of the Education and Labour Market Longitudinal Platform (ELMLP). The data for the products associated with this issue are derived from integrating Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS) administrative data with other administrative data on earnings. Statistics Canada has derived a series of annual indicators on the labour market outcomes of public postsecondary graduates including median employment income by educational qualification, field of study, age group and sex for Canada, the provinces and the territories combined.

    Release date: 2019-12-04

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-514-G2019001
    Description:

    The Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey contains a dictionary of concepts and definitions, and covers topics such as survey methodology, data collection, processing, and data quality. The guide covers both components of the survey: the job vacancy component, which is quarterly, and the wage component, which is annual.

    Release date: 2019-06-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-514-G
    Description:

    The Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey contains a dictionary of concepts and definitions, and covers topics such as survey methodology, data collection, processing, and data quality. The guide covers both components of the survey: the job vacancy component, which is quarterly, and the wage component, which is annual.

    Release date: 2019-06-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-514-G2018001
    Description:

    The Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey contains a dictionary of concepts and definitions, and covers topics such as survey methodology, data collection, processing, and data quality. The guide covers both components of the survey: the job vacancy component, which is quarterly, and the wage component, which is annual.

    Release date: 2018-07-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-514-G2017001
    Description:

    The Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey contains a dictionary of concepts and definitions, and covers topics such as survey methodology, data collection, processing, and data quality. The guide covers both components of the survey: the job vacancy component, which is quarterly, and the wage component, which is annual.

    Release date: 2017-06-15

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 97-563-G
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following variables: After-tax income, Total income and its components, Income status as well as other related variables from the Income and earnings release.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts, data quality and historical comparability. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-12-04

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11F0019M2003207
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The estimation of intergenerational earnings mobility is rife with measurement problems since the research does not observe permanent, lifetime earnings. Nearly all studies make corrections for mean variation in earnings because of the age differences among respondents. Recent works employ average earnings or instrumental variable methods to address the effects of measurement error as a result of transitory earnings shocks and mis-reporting. However, empirical studies of intergenerational mobility have paid no attention to the changes in earnings variance across the life cycle suggested by economic models of human capital investment.

    Using information from the Intergenerational Income Data from Canada and the National Longitudinal Survey and Panel Study of Income Dynamics from the United States, this study finds a strong association between age at observation and estimated earnings persistence. Part of this age-dependence is related to a general increase in transitory earnings variance during the collection of data. An independent effect of life cycle investment is also identified. These findings are then applied to the variation among intergenerational earnings persistence studies. Among studies with similar methodologies, one-third of the variance in published estimates of earnings persistence is attributable to cross-study differences in the age of responding fathers. Finally, these results call into question tests for the importance of credit constraints based on measures of earnings at different points in the life cycle.

    Release date: 2003-08-05

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89F0120X
    Description:

    Direct measures of skill attainment such as the International Adult Literacy Survey are used to assess the importance of educational outcome skills such as literacy in determining labour market outcomes such as earnings. Policy makers also use them to direct resources most efficiently. However, these skill measures are the product of complex statistical procedures. This paper examines the mathematical robustness of the International Adult Literacy Survey measures against other possibilities in estimating the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 1713
    Description: The objective of this program is to provide data on employment (number of employees, wages and salaries) in the public sector, i.e. the federal, provincial, territorial and local general governments, health and social service institutions, universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutions, school boards, and government business enterprises.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 2422
    Description: The survey is designed to provide annual estimates of retail sales, inventories, purchases, employees earnings and location data. This is a survey of Canadian retail business firms with sales and receipts over certain thresholds. The sales data are provided by kind of business and by province and territory.
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