Earnings, wages and non-wage benefits

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014360
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines which factors underlie the narrowing of wage differences seen between young bachelor’s degree holders and high school graduates from the 2000-to-2002 period to the 2010-to-2012 period and the widening of differences in full-time paid employment rates between these two groups.

    Four types of factors are considered: those associated with changes in labour supply, labour demand, institutions and employer–employee contracts, and general economic conditions.

    Changes in the population of bachelor’s degree holders relative to the population of high school graduates are used to capture changes in relative labour supply.

    Release date: 2014-04-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014359
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with completing a college certificate and a bachelor's degree, compared to completing a high school diploma. Several labour market outcomes of individuals are examined with longitudinal data over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s.

    With the creation of a new linked file consisting of the 1991 Census of Population and the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF), it is now possible to follow individuals in the labour market for a longer period of time than is feasible with existing survey data. The purpose of this study is to compare labour market outcomes of individuals with different levels of educational attainment over a 20-year period spanning their mid-30s to their mid-50s. Three levels of education are considered, corresponding to the decisions made by students following high school graduation: a high school diploma, a college certificate, and a bachelor's degree. Longitudinal data are used to track total earnings (wages and salaries plus net self-employment income), coverage in an employer-sponsored pension plan, employment, union membership, and permanent and temporary layoffs over the period 1991 to 2010.

    Release date: 2014-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014354
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the long-term labour market premiums associated with a high school diploma. The focus is on the value of the qualification (the signaling effect), but the premiums associated with the number of years of schooling required to obtain the qualification (the human-capital effect) are also estimated. The labour market outcomes of individuals born in the mid-1960s are measured from their mid-20s to their mid-40s with longitudinal administrative data from the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) that are linked to the 1991 Census of Population. Two groups are considered: terminal high school graduates (those who had obtained a high school diploma but had not acquired any postsecondary education by the 1991 Census) and individuals without a high school diploma (those who had no high school diploma, were not enrolled in high school, and had no postsecondary education at the time of the 1991 Census).

    Release date: 2014-01-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013032
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article addresses three questions: (1) What were the employment dynamics of a specific cohort of immigrant and native-born workers over the 20 years from 1991 to 2010? (2) To what extent did initial differences in earnings and pension coverage between the two groups narrow during this period? (3) Which factors were associated with the narrowing of these differences? The data are from the linked Census 1991-Longitudinal Worker File and pertain to real annual wages and salaries and pension coverage of immigrants aged 25 to 34 in 1991 who arrived in Canada from 1985 to 1990 and native-born workers of the same age.

    Release date: 2013-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2013347
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines how real wages of Canadian workers evolved from 1981 to 2011 across five dimensions: gender, age, education, industry, and occupation.

    Release date: 2013-03-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012346
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines long-term earnings losses of workers laid off during the early 1990s and the early 2000s using data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Worker File (LWF). In contrast to earlier studies, many of which focused on narrowly defined samples, this study compares earnings losses across all groups of displaced workers with stable labour market attachment prior to layoff. The study shows that focusing solely on high-seniority laid-off workers or workers laid off in firm closures leads to the exclusion of at least two-thirds of Canadian displaced workers with stable labour market attachment.

    Release date: 2012-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012345
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study uses the 2007 National Apprenticeship Survey (NAS) to compare hourly wage differences observed between apprentices who complete their programs and apprentices who discontinue their programs. The primary objective is to estimate the magnitude of the wage difference between these groups while taking into account a broad range of characteristics. Furthermore, wage comparisons are refined further by disaggregating apprentices into four mutually exclusive groups, defined on the basis of program completion and certification.

    Release date: 2012-10-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201200211697
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Many parents take time off work to care for a child after birth or adoption. Whether or not parents take leave and the duration of that leave may be influenced by characteristics such as parental employment or child and maternal health factors.

    This article examines children's experiences of parent-reported leave after their birth or adoption. In addition, associations between leave and parent employment and child and maternal health factors are analyzed using data from the 2010 Survey of Young Canadians.

    Release date: 2012-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012008
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines two questions: (1) Which groups of Canadian workers have experienced stronger real wage growth over the past three decades?; and (2) To what extent do individuals' acquisition of education, general work experience, and seniority within firms, as well as their movements into higher-wage or lower-wage occupations and industries, account for differences in real wage growth observed across groups of workers? This article uses data from various Statistics Canada surveys and focuses on the real (hourly or weekly) wages earned by full-time workers. It is based on research carried out at Statistics Canada aimed at providing information on how wage rates of Canadian workers have changed over the past three decades. Wages are expressed in 2010 dollars.

    Release date: 2012-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2012023
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the process by which migrants experience gains in earnings subsequent to migration and, in particular, the advantage that migrants obtain from moving to large, dynamic metropolitan labour markets, using Toronto as a benchmark. There are two potentially distinct patterns to gains in earnings associated with migration. The first is a step upwards in which workers realize immediate gains in earnings subsequent to migration. The second is accelerated gains in earnings subsequent to migration. Immediate gains are associated with obtaining a position in a more productive firm and/or a better match between worker skills and abilities and job tasks. Accelerated gains in earnings are associated processes that take time, such as learning or job switching as workers and firms seek out better matches. Evaluated here is the expectation that the economies of large metropolitan areas provide workers with an initial productive advantage stemming from a one-time improvement in worker productivity and/or a dynamic that accelerates gains in earnings over time through the potentially entwined processes of learning and matching. A variety of datasets and methodologies, including propensity score matching, are used to evaluate patterns of income gains associated with migration to Toronto.

    Release date: 2012-05-03
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  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 11F0019M2003207
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The estimation of intergenerational earnings mobility is rife with measurement problems since the research does not observe permanent, lifetime earnings. Nearly all studies make corrections for mean variation in earnings because of the age differences among respondents. Recent works employ average earnings or instrumental variable methods to address the effects of measurement error as a result of transitory earnings shocks and mis-reporting. However, empirical studies of intergenerational mobility have paid no attention to the changes in earnings variance across the life cycle suggested by economic models of human capital investment.

    Using information from the Intergenerational Income Data from Canada and the National Longitudinal Survey and Panel Study of Income Dynamics from the United States, this study finds a strong association between age at observation and estimated earnings persistence. Part of this age-dependence is related to a general increase in transitory earnings variance during the collection of data. An independent effect of life cycle investment is also identified. These findings are then applied to the variation among intergenerational earnings persistence studies. Among studies with similar methodologies, one-third of the variance in published estimates of earnings persistence is attributable to cross-study differences in the age of responding fathers. Finally, these results call into question tests for the importance of credit constraints based on measures of earnings at different points in the life cycle.

    Release date: 2003-08-05
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