Earnings, wages and non-wage benefits

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All (207)

All (207) (0 to 10 of 207 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019012
    Description:

    It has been well-documented that postsecondary graduates, on average, earn considerably more than others. Consequently, increasing postsecondary enrollment among youth from lower-income families—through targeted student aid or community outreach programs—may constitute an effective mechanism for promoting upward income mobility. However, there currently exists no evidence of the benefits of a postsecondary education (PSE) for youth from lower-income families per se. Using postsecondary administrative records and income tax records, this study bridges this information gap by estimating the association between earnings and PSE by level of parental income among a cohort of Ontario postsecondary graduates and a comparison group of Ontario youth who did not enroll in a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2019-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019003
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief portrait of the Canadian Working Income Tax Benefit (WITB) and WITB recipients using 2014 tax data. It first presents the main components of the WITB program. It then describes WITB recipients from demographic and income perspectives. Finally, the paper examines the impact of the WITB on low-income rates and low-income gap ratios.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007
    Description:

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019002
    Description:

    Based on the preliminary T1 Family File (T1FF) for the 2017 reference year, this study gives an overview for Canada, the provinces and the territories of income from annual wages, salaries and commissions of T1 tax filers. The paper focusses on some characteristics of this income source and of the wage-earning tax filers.

    Release date: 2019-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018086
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides users with an integrated summary of long-term changes in several characteristics of the jobs held by Canadian employees. The article assesses the evolution of median real hourly wages in all jobs, full-time jobs and part-time jobs, as well as the evolution of layoff rates. It also examines changes in the percentage of jobs that are full-time; permanent; full-time and permanent; unionized; in public administration, educational services, health care and social assistance; covered by a registered pension plan (RPP); and covered by a defined-benefit RPP. Unless otherwise noted, statistics are shown for the main job held by employees in May and cover the period from 1981 to 2018. The main job is the job with the most weekly work hours. Full-time jobs involve 30 hours or more per week.

    Release date: 2018-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154978
    Description:

    More and more Canadians are pursuing graduate studies, often to increase their chances of getting a better-paying job. Using data from the 2016 Census, this study examines the extent to which median earnings of workers with a master’s degree or doctorate differ from their counterparts with a bachelor’s degree, focusing on differences across fields of study. The target population includes paid employees aged 30 to 59 who worked full year and full time during the year preceding the census, and whose highest educational qualification was obtained in Canada.

    Release date: 2018-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154976
    Description:

    Using data from the Canadian Vital Statistics Birth Database and from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), this study examines the relationship between fertility rates and labour force participation among women aged 15 to 44 in Ontario and in Quebec between 1996 and 2016, two provinces that followed different paths with respect to parental leave benefits and affordable child care over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2018-07-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154974
    Description:

    This study uses the 2017 and 2018 Labour Force Survey to provide a recent profile of minimum wage workers. The paper focuses on three groups of minimum wage workers: students aged 15 to 24 and non-students the same age living with their parents (referred to below as minimum wage workers under 25); individuals aged 15 to 64 who are single, lone parents or spouses/partners in single-earner couples; and individuals aged 15 to 64 who are spouses/partners in dual-earner couples. The article documents the relative importance of these three groups as well as their weekly wages and work patterns.

    Release date: 2018-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018082
    Description:

    The Canadian and U.S. labour markets have experienced a number of economic shocks since the early 2000s. This Economic Insights article assesses how employment rates and wages of persons aged 25 to 54 evolved in Canada and the United States from 2000 to 2017. The analysis is based on data from Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), and on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey (CPS).

    Release date: 2018-06-04
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Analysis (207)

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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114322
    Description:

    This article explores how skill proficiencies are related to household income for Canadians aged 16 to 65 using data from the first wave of the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), conducted in 2012. The article also demonstrates how the relationship between skill level and low income changes after controlling for other characteristics known to increase the risk of low income.

    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016374
    Description:

    During the 1990s and 2000s, changes in immigration selection policies significantly altered the characteristics of new immigrants to Canada across a number of dimensions, including educational attainment at landing, immigration class, source region, pre-landing Canadian work experience and geographic distribution. These changes were designed primarily to improve immigrant economic outcomes at landing. This paper examines whether immigrant entry earnings improved as a result of these changes in immigration selection and, if so, which characteristics contributed most to the improvement.

    Release date: 2016-02-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015370
    Description:

    Although most Canadian temporary foreign worker programs did not include provisions that allow participants to apply for permanent residency until recently, a substantial number of temporary foreign workers have become landed immigrants since the 1980s. For instance, from 2008 to 2012, about 32,000 temporary foreign workers gained permanent residency each year, accounting for 13% of the total inflow of landed immigrants. This paper examines the earnings of economic immigrants who initially arrived as temporary residents and held a work or study permit, and compares them to economic immigrants who were directly selected as permanent residents from abroad.

    Release date: 2015-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015050
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents the evolution of real annual wages and salaries and employment patterns of young postsecondary graduates by field of study from 2005 to 2012. Results are shown for Canadian-born individuals aged 25 to 34 who are college graduates or hold a bachelor's degree. The data are drawn from the linked 2006 Census–2011 National Household Survey–T1 Personal Master File. Fields of study are defined according to the Classification of Instructional Programs.

    Release date: 2015-09-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015368
    Description:

    While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants' characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated among economic immigrants, promoted changes to the points system in the early 1990s and in 2002, in large part, to improve immigrant earnings. Knowledge of the relative role of various characteristics in determining immigrant earnings is important when making such changes. This paper addresses two questions. First, what is the relative importance of observable human capital factors when predicting earnings of economic immigrants (principal applicants), who are selected by the points system? Second, does the relative importance of these factors vary in the short, intermediate, and long terms? This research employs Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB).

    Release date: 2015-08-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015365
    Description:

    Previous studies have found a strong association between source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country. This relationship is interpreted as the enduring influence of source-country gender-role attitudes on immigrant women’s labour market activity. However, the assumption that source-country female labour force participation levels closely capture cultural gender-role attitudes has not been carefully examined. Furthermore, little is known about how source-country characteristics might be correlated with immigrant women’s labour market outcomes after entering the host country’s labour market.

    This paper extends the current literature by addressing three questions: What is the relationship between source-country gender-role attitudes and source-country female labour force participation? Does the relationship between the source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country persist when source-country gender-role attitudes are taken into account? Are source-country female labour force participation rates and source-country gender-role attitudes associated with immigrant women’s wages in Canada?

    Release date: 2015-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 81-599-X2015010
    Description:

    This paper examines the career expectations of Canadian youth over time, using a longitudinal database, to assess when youth begin to demonstrate consistency in their career choices. In this research, youth are said to demonstrate consistency in their career choices when their response to the question "What kind of job or occupation would you be interested in having when you are about 30 years old?" matches with their answers from earlier cycles of the survey in terms of occupation type and required level of education.

    This paper first examines factors contributing to earlier and later consistency in career expectations, followed by a comparison of educational outcomes based on career consistency patterns. The goal of this analysis is to identify differences in educational outcomes based on the career decision making patterns demonstrated by youth.

    This article uses data from the Statistics Canada's Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) collected between the years 2000 and 2010, and focuses on cohort A. The YITS cohort A members were 15 years old in 2000, and were surveyed every 2 years until the age of 25.

    Release date: 2015-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201400114120
    Description:

    This study examines the characteristics of Canadian workers aged 25 to 54 who are covered by defined benefit (DB) registered pension plans (RPPs) as well as those covered by defined contribution RPPs or hybrid plans. It does so by taking advantage of new data from the new Longitudinal and International Survey of Adults (LISA), first conducted in 2012.

    Release date: 2014-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2014040
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series reports on the cumulative earnings over a 20-year period of college and bachelor's degree graduates from different fields of study. This article is part of a program at Statistics Canada that examines various dimensions of labour market outcomes of postsecondary graduates.

    Release date: 2014-10-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014362
    Description:

    The study examines the effects of cancer on the work status and annual earnings of cancer survivors who had a strong attachment to the labour market prior to their diagnosis. The comparison group consists of similar workers never diagnosed with cancer. The study is based on a Statistics Canada linkage file that combines microdata from the 1991 Census, the Canadian Cancer Registry, mortality records and personal income tax files. The study estimates changes in the magnitude of cancer effects during the first three years following the year of the diagnosis using a large sample of cancer survivors diagnosed at ages 25 to 61. The empirical strategy combines matching and regression models to deal with observed and unobserved differences between the cancer and comparison samples, and to improve causal inference.

    Release date: 2014-09-30
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