Earnings, wages and non-wage benefits

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  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20000015130
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The incomes of culture workers have long been an issue of concern to culture organizations and lobby groups. Using the 1997 Census, we can look at the average earnings of some 500 different occupations including some selected culture occupations.

    Release date: 2000-07-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025068
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study defines average annual earnings as the product of three components: hourly earnings, weekly hours and annual weeks. It looks at each component's contribution to differences in provincial earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2000007
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses the problem of statistical inference with ordinal variates and examines the robustness to alternative literacy measurement and scaling choices of rankings of average literacy and of estimates of the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000144
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we revisit trends in low-income among Canadian children by taking advantage of recent developments in the measurement of low-income intensity. We focus in particular on the Sen-Shorrocks-Thon (SST) index and its elaboration by Osberg and Xu. Low-income intensity declined in the 1980s but rose in the 1990s. Declining earnings put upward pressure on low-income levels over much of the period. Higher transfers more than offset this pressure in the 1980s and continued to absorb a substantial share of the increase through 1993. In contrast, the rise in low-income intensity after 1993 reflected reductions in UI and social assistance benefits that were not offset by increased employment earnings, at least to 1996 the latest year used in this paper.

    A major aim of the paper is methodological. We contrast results using the SST index with results produced by the more familiar low-income rate, the usual measure for indexing low-income trends. The low-income rate is embedded in the SST index, but unlike the index, the rate incorporates only partial information on the distribution of low-income. Consequently, the low-income rate is generally unable to detect the changes we describe and this is true irrespective of the choice of low-income cut-off. Compared to the low-income intensity measure, the rate is also relatively insensitive to changes in transfer payments and employment earnings.

    Release date: 2000-03-30

  • 155. Earnings of lawyers Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014886
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earnings of lawyers continue to exceed the overal average. This study presents a profile of lawyers and highlights the changes that have taken place in their demographic characteristics between 1970 and 1995, and in their earnings between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999138
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we assemble data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and older workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Our main findings are the following. First, both administrative data from the Pension Plans in Canada (PPIC) database and data from household surveys show an increase in RPP coverage for women. In contrast, while PPIC data show a decrease in coverage for men, household surveys indicate no downward trend for males. Second, sample aggregates hide interesting differences within the population. We find that the pension coverage of young workers (aged 25-34) has declined relative to older workers (aged 35-54). Young males have experienced a decline in coverage while RPP coverage has remained fairly stable for older men. In contrast, pension coverage has remained fairly constant for young women but has risen substantially for older women. Third, the decline in unionism and shifts towards industries with low-coverage explain most of the decrease in coverage observed among young men. Fourth, the growth in older women's coverage appears to be the result of their greater propensity to be employed in highly paid/highly covered occupations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044755
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In addition to the Survey of Consumer Finances, the Labour Force Survey now provides a way of comparing women's earnings with men's. The tow measures are explained here, as are the reasons for the sizable gap between them.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999024
    Description:

    In recent years, Canada's economy has continued to become more service-based. This shift is particularly evident when examining information by sector for Canada's workforce. This paper offers a descriptive historical overview of changes in employment and remuneration in the services sector during the 1984-97 period. Changes in full-time employment, part-time employment, self-employment, and average wages and salaries are noted.

    As well, particular attention is devoted to shifts in these indicators for such service industries as: finance, insurance and real estate services; business services; food and beverage services; communication services; amusement and recreation services; and traveler accommodation services.

    Release date: 1999-06-17
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Analysis (210)

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019018
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. These laws, which give the public access to the salaries of individual faculty members if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. One of the most persistent and salient features of labour markets around the world is that women earn less than men. A hypothesis recently gaining traction among academic researchers and policy makers is that the gender earnings gap persists in part because it is hidden. There have also been calls in the private sector for more transparency on pay discrepancies between male and female workers. This paper provides new evidence on the causal effect of pay transparency laws on salaries.

    Release date: 2019-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2019003
    Description:

    This report looks at the evolution of minimum wage prevalence over the last 20 years, using annual estimates from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). It examines changes in the profile of minimum wage employees, first through a series of gradual minimum wage increases observed from 1998 to 2017, followed by notable increases in 2018. It then looks at changes in the average minimum wage in Canada compared with the average hourly wages for all employees.

    Release date: 2019-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 45-20-00022019001
    Description:

    Reducing pay inequality between women and men is a key priority, both nationally and internationally, for achieving gender equality. Documenting gender inequality in pay and tracking progress in this regard for policy purposes requires at least one indicator. The adjusted gender pay gap-the raw difference between the employment earnings of women and men, expressed either as a proportion of men's earnings (i.e., the "gender pay ratio") or one minus the gender pay ratio-typically serves this purpose. At present, there are no internationally-recognized standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap, leaving considerable scope for political choice.

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the development of international standards for measuring the adjusted gender pay gap by explaining the assumptions underlying, and the implications following from, various methods. Additionally, the paper strives to increase literacy about the meaning and interpretation of different estimates of the gender pay gap, and to bring together various explanations for the gender pay gap.

    Release date: 2019-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019012
    Description:

    It has been well-documented that postsecondary graduates, on average, earn considerably more than others. Consequently, increasing postsecondary enrollment among youth from lower-income families—through targeted student aid or community outreach programs—may constitute an effective mechanism for promoting upward income mobility. However, there currently exists no evidence of the benefits of a postsecondary education (PSE) for youth from lower-income families per se. Using postsecondary administrative records and income tax records, this study bridges this information gap by estimating the association between earnings and PSE by level of parental income among a cohort of Ontario postsecondary graduates and a comparison group of Ontario youth who did not enroll in a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2019-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019003
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief portrait of the Canadian Working Income Tax Benefit (WITB) and WITB recipients using 2014 tax data. It first presents the main components of the WITB program. It then describes WITB recipients from demographic and income perspectives. Finally, the paper examines the impact of the WITB on low-income rates and low-income gap ratios.

    Release date: 2019-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007
    Description:

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2019002
    Description:

    Based on the preliminary T1 Family File (T1FF) for the 2017 reference year, this study gives an overview for Canada, the provinces and the territories of income from annual wages, salaries and commissions of T1 tax filers. The paper focusses on some characteristics of this income source and of the wage-earning tax filers.

    Release date: 2019-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018086
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides users with an integrated summary of long-term changes in several characteristics of the jobs held by Canadian employees. The article assesses the evolution of median real hourly wages in all jobs, full-time jobs and part-time jobs, as well as the evolution of layoff rates. It also examines changes in the percentage of jobs that are full-time; permanent; full-time and permanent; unionized; in public administration, educational services, health care and social assistance; covered by a registered pension plan (RPP); and covered by a defined-benefit RPP. Unless otherwise noted, statistics are shown for the main job held by employees in May and cover the period from 1981 to 2018. The main job is the job with the most weekly work hours. Full-time jobs involve 30 hours or more per week.

    Release date: 2018-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154978
    Description:

    More and more Canadians are pursuing graduate studies, often to increase their chances of getting a better-paying job. Using data from the 2016 Census, this study examines the extent to which median earnings of workers with a master’s degree or doctorate differ from their counterparts with a bachelor’s degree, focusing on differences across fields of study. The target population includes paid employees aged 30 to 59 who worked full year and full time during the year preceding the census, and whose highest educational qualification was obtained in Canada.

    Release date: 2018-09-26
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