Earnings of immigrants

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019023
    Description:

    In Canada, immigrants represented more than half of the population in the prime working ages with at least a bachelor’s degree in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields of study in 2016. They accounted for three-quarters of engineering and computer science graduates with a master’s or doctorate degree. This paper examines the skill utilization and earnings of employed STEM-educated immigrants by field of study and degree level.

    Release date: 2019-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019022
    Description:

    Canada and the United States are two major immigrant destinations with distinct immigration policies. The two countries also differ in immigration level and economy size, but their government structures, economic systems and social environment have many similarities. These similarities and differences provide a useful setting for comparative immigration research. This study compares the differences in the mismatch between the education and occupations of immigrants in Canada and the United States, operationalized by over-education. It further explores how the cross-country differences may be related to the supply of and demand for university-educated immigrants and the way they are selected.

    Release date: 2019-12-03

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X201933721484
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2019-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007
    Description:

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016374
    Description:

    During the 1990s and 2000s, changes in immigration selection policies significantly altered the characteristics of new immigrants to Canada across a number of dimensions, including educational attainment at landing, immigration class, source region, pre-landing Canadian work experience and geographic distribution. These changes were designed primarily to improve immigrant economic outcomes at landing. This paper examines whether immigrant entry earnings improved as a result of these changes in immigration selection and, if so, which characteristics contributed most to the improvement.

    Release date: 2016-02-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015370
    Description:

    Although most Canadian temporary foreign worker programs did not include provisions that allow participants to apply for permanent residency until recently, a substantial number of temporary foreign workers have become landed immigrants since the 1980s. For instance, from 2008 to 2012, about 32,000 temporary foreign workers gained permanent residency each year, accounting for 13% of the total inflow of landed immigrants. This paper examines the earnings of economic immigrants who initially arrived as temporary residents and held a work or study permit, and compares them to economic immigrants who were directly selected as permanent residents from abroad.

    Release date: 2015-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015368
    Description:

    While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants' characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated among economic immigrants, promoted changes to the points system in the early 1990s and in 2002, in large part, to improve immigrant earnings. Knowledge of the relative role of various characteristics in determining immigrant earnings is important when making such changes. This paper addresses two questions. First, what is the relative importance of observable human capital factors when predicting earnings of economic immigrants (principal applicants), who are selected by the points system? Second, does the relative importance of these factors vary in the short, intermediate, and long terms? This research employs Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB).

    Release date: 2015-08-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013032
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article addresses three questions: (1) What were the employment dynamics of a specific cohort of immigrant and native-born workers over the 20 years from 1991 to 2010? (2) To what extent did initial differences in earnings and pension coverage between the two groups narrow during this period? (3) Which factors were associated with the narrowing of these differences? The data are from the linked Census 1991-Longitudinal Worker File and pertain to real annual wages and salaries and pension coverage of immigrants aged 25 to 34 in 1991 who arrived in Canada from 1985 to 1990 and native-born workers of the same age.

    Release date: 2013-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012340
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper studies the effect of selective attrition on estimates of immigrant earnings growth based on repeated cross-sectional data in Canada. Longitudinal tax data linked to immigrant landing records are used in order to estimate the change in immigrant earnings and the immigrant-Canadian-born earnings gap. The results are compared with those from repeated cross-sectional data. This approach eliminates differences in results that may stem from variation in collection modes and procedures across datasets.

    Release date: 2012-02-28
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