Earnings of immigrants

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  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201900100007

    This study uses data from the 2016 Census in order to examine the employment earnings of individuals with an immigrant background (i.e., immigrants and children of immigrants) who are part of official language minorities in Canada. Two groups are examined: those with French as their first official language spoken (FOLS) living in Canada outside Quebec, and those with English as their FOLS living in Quebec. In this study, comparisons are made with groups belonging to the linguistic majority.

    Release date: 2019-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2019007

    Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period.

    Release date: 2019-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016374

    During the 1990s and 2000s, changes in immigration selection policies significantly altered the characteristics of new immigrants to Canada across a number of dimensions, including educational attainment at landing, immigration class, source region, pre-landing Canadian work experience and geographic distribution. These changes were designed primarily to improve immigrant economic outcomes at landing. This paper examines whether immigrant entry earnings improved as a result of these changes in immigration selection and, if so, which characteristics contributed most to the improvement.

    Release date: 2016-02-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015370

    Although most Canadian temporary foreign worker programs did not include provisions that allow participants to apply for permanent residency until recently, a substantial number of temporary foreign workers have become landed immigrants since the 1980s. For instance, from 2008 to 2012, about 32,000 temporary foreign workers gained permanent residency each year, accounting for 13% of the total inflow of landed immigrants. This paper examines the earnings of economic immigrants who initially arrived as temporary residents and held a work or study permit, and compares them to economic immigrants who were directly selected as permanent residents from abroad.

    Release date: 2015-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015368

    While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants' characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated among economic immigrants, promoted changes to the points system in the early 1990s and in 2002, in large part, to improve immigrant earnings. Knowledge of the relative role of various characteristics in determining immigrant earnings is important when making such changes. This paper addresses two questions. First, what is the relative importance of observable human capital factors when predicting earnings of economic immigrants (principal applicants), who are selected by the points system? Second, does the relative importance of these factors vary in the short, intermediate, and long terms? This research employs Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB).

    Release date: 2015-08-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2013032
    Geography: Canada

    This article addresses three questions: (1) What were the employment dynamics of a specific cohort of immigrant and native-born workers over the 20 years from 1991 to 2010? (2) To what extent did initial differences in earnings and pension coverage between the two groups narrow during this period? (3) Which factors were associated with the narrowing of these differences? The data are from the linked Census 1991-Longitudinal Worker File and pertain to real annual wages and salaries and pension coverage of immigrants aged 25 to 34 in 1991 who arrived in Canada from 1985 to 1990 and native-born workers of the same age.

    Release date: 2013-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012340
    Geography: Canada

    This paper studies the effect of selective attrition on estimates of immigrant earnings growth based on repeated cross-sectional data in Canada. Longitudinal tax data linked to immigrant landing records are used in order to estimate the change in immigrant earnings and the immigrant-Canadian-born earnings gap. The results are compared with those from repeated cross-sectional data. This approach eliminates differences in results that may stem from variation in collection modes and procedures across datasets.

    Release date: 2012-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311505
    Geography: Canada

    Even though immigrants who arrived in Canada in recent decades are more educated than other Canadians, they enrol in postsecondary educational institutions in proportionally greater numbers after their arrival. This article examines a cohort of immigrants who were between 25 and 44 years of age when they arrived in Canada in 1998 and 1999. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), changes in immigrants' employment income over an eight-year period are studied based on whether these individuals pursued postsecondary education in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011330
    Geography: Canada

    Current knowledge about the favourable socioeconomic attainment (in education and earnings) among children of immigrants is based on the experiences of those individuals whose immigrant parents came to Canada before the 1970s. Since then, successive cohorts of adult immigrants have experienced deteriorating entry earnings. This has raised questions about whether the outcomes of their children have changed over time. This study shows that successive cohorts of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada at age 12 or younger during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s had increasingly higher educational attainment (as measured by the share with university degrees) than their Canadian-born peers by age 25 to 34. Conditional on education and other background characteristics, male childhood immigrants who arrived in the 1960s earned less than the Canadian-born comparison group, but the two subsequent cohorts had similar earnings as the comparison group. Female childhood immigrants earned as much as the Canadian-born comparison group, except for the 1980s cohort, which earned more.

    Release date: 2011-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200911211055
    Geography: Canada

    The decline in earnings among immigrants over the past quarter century is well-documented, but its impact on various segments of the immigrant population is less well-known. This study examines long-term trends in the incidence of low income among working-age immigrants, immigrant seniors and the children of immigrants. The study looks at two main factors that contribute to the incidence of low income: market income and government transfers.

    Release date: 2009-12-21
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