Earnings by age or sex

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  • Table: 95F0430X2001009
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (2003 Representation Order).This table is part of the topic 'Earnings of Canadians,' which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net farm self-employment income and net income from non-farm unincorporated businesses and professional practices) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups. It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue no. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2004-04-08

  • Table: 95F0430X2001002
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Census metropolitan areas, tracted census agglomerations and census tracts.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001003
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (by 1996 representation order).

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001006
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.

    Release date: 2002-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002186
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.

    After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.

    When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.

    It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.

    The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.

    Release date: 2002-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010126036
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The issue of male-female wage inequality is complex, and requires analysis from a number of different perspectives. This article demonstrates the importance of measurement, decomposition techniques and differences in the gap along the wage scale.

    Release date: 2001-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001157
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to investigate the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. Like other studies using standard decomposition techniques and controlling for a variety of productivity-related characteristics, the results demonstrate that men still enjoy a wage advantage over women: women's average hourly wage rate is about 84% - 89% of the men's average. Unlike other studies, controls for work experience and job-related responsibilities are used. Gender differences in full-year, full-time work experience explain at most, 12% of the gender wage gap. Gender differences in the opportunity to supervise and to perform certain tasks account for about 5% of the gender wage gap. Yet despite the long list of productivity related factors, a substantial portion of the gender wage gap cannot be explained.

    Many studies rely on measures such as age or potential experience (= age minus number of years of schooling minus six) as a proxy for actual labour market. Neither of these measures account for complete withdrawals from the labour market nor for restrictions on the number of hours worked per week or on the number of weeks worked per year due to family-related responsibilities. The results show that proxies for experience yield larger adjusted gender wage gaps than when actual experience is used.

    Release date: 2001-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20
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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19950042457
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    One of the most radical changes in Canadian society in the past 30 years has been the growth of dual-earner husband-wife families. Using the most recent data on families with employment income, this article examines couples in which wives earn more than their husbands, to see how they differ from the majority of working husband-wife families (those in which the husband is the main breadwinner).

    Release date: 1995-12-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994068
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study attempts to compare the earnings of men and women on an equal footing by concentrating on recent postsecondary graduates and using survey data on a number of earnings-related characteristics. The data cover three graduating classes of university and community college students: 1982, 1986 and 1990. These data indicate that the gender earnings gap among graduates has narrowed in recent years. In fact among the most recent class, we found that female university graduates are rewarded slightly better than their male counterparts after controlling for experience, job tenure, education and hours of work. A small gender gap persists among community college graduates: about three-and-a-half percent on an hourly wage basis. For all graduates, the earnings gap tended to increase with age, even after controlling for previous work experience.

    Release date: 1994-11-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X199100256
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Over the last 20 years, the increasing participation of women in the labour force has been one of the most significant changes in Canada. With that in mind, the author draws on data from previous censuses to review changes in women's earnings and work patterns, and the consequent impact on family income.

    Release date: 1991-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X199000214
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Have recent female university graduates been able to narrow the earnings gap between themselves and their male counterparts? This study tackles the question by examining field of study, occupation and other characteristics of graduates

    Release date: 1990-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19900012294
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    As more and more wives join the work force, the dual-earner family has become the norm and a wife who earns more than her husband is no longer a rarity: in 1987, it happened in just under one of five dual-earner families. This study profiles these wives and their husbands by work patterns and earnings, and looks at life-cycle variations.

    Release date: 1990-01-26
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