Earnings by age or sex

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  • Table: 95F0430X2001009
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (2003 Representation Order).This table is part of the topic 'Earnings of Canadians,' which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net farm self-employment income and net income from non-farm unincorporated businesses and professional practices) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups. It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue no. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2004-04-08

  • Table: 95F0430X2001002
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Census metropolitan areas, tracted census agglomerations and census tracts.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001003
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (by 1996 representation order).

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001006
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.

    Release date: 2002-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002186
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.

    After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.

    When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.

    It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.

    The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.

    Release date: 2002-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010126036
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The issue of male-female wage inequality is complex, and requires analysis from a number of different perspectives. This article demonstrates the importance of measurement, decomposition techniques and differences in the gap along the wage scale.

    Release date: 2001-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001157
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to investigate the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. Like other studies using standard decomposition techniques and controlling for a variety of productivity-related characteristics, the results demonstrate that men still enjoy a wage advantage over women: women's average hourly wage rate is about 84% - 89% of the men's average. Unlike other studies, controls for work experience and job-related responsibilities are used. Gender differences in full-year, full-time work experience explain at most, 12% of the gender wage gap. Gender differences in the opportunity to supervise and to perform certain tasks account for about 5% of the gender wage gap. Yet despite the long list of productivity related factors, a substantial portion of the gender wage gap cannot be explained.

    Many studies rely on measures such as age or potential experience (= age minus number of years of schooling minus six) as a proxy for actual labour market. Neither of these measures account for complete withdrawals from the labour market nor for restrictions on the number of hours worked per week or on the number of weeks worked per year due to family-related responsibilities. The results show that proxies for experience yield larger adjusted gender wage gaps than when actual experience is used.

    Release date: 2001-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20
Data (20)

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Analysis (35)

Analysis (35) (20 to 30 of 35 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044755
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In addition to the Survey of Consumer Finances, the Labour Force Survey now provides a way of comparing women's earnings with men's. The tow measures are explained here, as are the reasons for the sizable gap between them.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999131
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using a regression decomposition approach, we find that, during the 1980s, the growth in the relative educational attainment of older workers has contributed to about one-quarter of the increase in the age-wage gap of men and women. During the 1990s, the age-wage gap increased to a much lesser extent. Changing relative educational attainment accounted for a much greater proportion of the much smaller increase in the gap: almost one-half for males and over three-quarters for women. We also find that, during the 1980s, the expected weekly wages associated with all levels of education fell for younger workers, both for men and women (from 2% to 16%, depending upon education level). Older employees, on the other hand, experienced mixed results. Expected weekly wages rose for some older workers and fell for some others.

    Release date: 1999-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999130
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Several recent studies have found that earnings inequality in Canada has grown considerably since the late 1970's. Using an extraordinary data base drawn from longitudinal income tax records, we decompose this growth in earnings inequality into its persistent and transitory components. We find that the growth in earnings inequality reflects both an increase in long-run inequality and an increase in earnings instability. Our large sample size enables us to estimate and test richer models than could be supported by the relatively small panel surveys used in most previous research on earnings dynamics. For example, we are able to incorporate both heterogeneous earnings growth and a random-walk process in the same model, and we find that both are empirically significant.

    Release date: 1999-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998113
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Our objective is to obtain an accurate estimate of the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada. We use income tax information on about 400,000 father-son pairs, and find intergenerational earnings elasticities to be about 0.2. Earnings mobility tends to be slightly greater than income mobility, but non-parametric techniques uncover significant non-linearities in both of these relationships. Intergenerational earnings mobility is greater at the lower end of the income distribution than at the upper end, and displays an inverted V-shape elsewhere. Intergenerational income mobility follows roughly the same pattern, but is much lower at the very top of the income distribution.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998112
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The study examines the reason for the significant increase in the 'age premium' over the period 1981-94. The age premium refers to the percentage difference in hourly earnings between 'younger' (25-34) and 'older' (45-54) workers. In 1994, the hourly rate of older males was 32.4% higher than that of younger males. The corresponding age premium among females was 15.5%. Over the period 1981-94, the age premium increased by 15.7 percentage points among males and 19.5 percentage points among females.

    Evidence based on analysis of the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) public use microdata shows that, while there has been a trend toward non-standard employment, this so far has affected mostly workers under age 25 and cannot explain the rise in the age premium between ages 25-to-34 and 45-to-54, which is the focus of this study.

    A more likely explanation identified by the study is the dramatic improvement in the level of education of older workers over the last 14 years. For example, from 1981 to 1994 the percentage of older male workers with grade 10 education or less declined from 41.9% to 19.6%, while the percentage with post-secondary diplomas and degrees increased from 32.1% to 51.7%. The education level of younger male workers also improved over the same period, but the rate of improvement was smaller and, by 1994, there was virtually no difference in the incidence of post-secondary diplomas and degrees between younger and older workers. Similar trends took place among female workers. Shift-share analysis shows that the narrowing of the education gap between older and younger workers explains 44% of the age premium rise among male employees and 50% of the age premium rise among female employees.

    Release date: 1998-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998116
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The increase in earnings inequality among men in particular in Canada has been well documented. This paper adds to our knowledge of inequality trends by addressing three issues. First, what has happened to earnings inequality among the employed population in the 1990s? We find that earnings inequality and polarization increased little in the population of all workers (men and women combined) between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. The second question relates to the impact of the changing propensity of Canadians to hold a job on earnings inequality. Put another way, if we focus on the entire population of working age Canadians (those with and without paid employment), what are the inequality trends. We find that earnings inequality among the working age population changed little over the 1980s and 1990s. This analysis incorporates both the influence of the changing employment/population ratio and inequality trends among employed workers on overall earnings inequality among the working age population. But this relative stability in overall earnings inequality since the mid-1980s masks a number of offsetting underlying trends. Some groups of workers are making earnings gains (notably older workers, and women) while others are losing (notably younger workers and men). This paper focuses in particular on the earnings trends among younger workers, and finds that the decline in annual earnings of younger male workers in particular is associated with a decline in real hourly wages.

    Release date: 1998-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022890
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Contrary to popular belief, the average earnings of men working full year full time seem to decline prior to retirement. This study explores several possible explanations for the unexpected pattern.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996089
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper we use administrative data associated with the tax system to: (1) document the extent of intergenerational income mobility among Canadian men; and (2) estimate the income disadvantage (in adulthood) of being raised in a low income household. We find that there is considerable intergenerational income mobility in Canada among middle income earners, but that the inheritance of economic status is significant at both the very top and very bottom of the income distribution. About one-third of those in the bottom quartile were raised by fathers who occupied the same position in the income distribution. In fact, the income advantage of someone who had a father in the top decile over someone who had a father in the bottom decile is in the order of 40%. We also discuss some of the policy implications of these findings, as well as some of their limitations and the directions implied for future research.

    Release date: 1996-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1995014
    Description:

    This paper follows up on the initial article in the publication Dynamics of Labour and Income, 1994 Report. The analysis remains the same, but it provides detailed variable groupings, regression and decomposition results which were not originally included.

    Release date: 1995-12-30
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