Earnings by age or sex

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  • Table: 95F0430X2001009
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (2003 Representation Order).This table is part of the topic 'Earnings of Canadians,' which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net farm self-employment income and net income from non-farm unincorporated businesses and professional practices) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups. It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue no. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2004-04-08

  • Table: 95F0430X2001002
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Census metropolitan areas, tracted census agglomerations and census tracts.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001003
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories and federal electoral districts (by 1996 representation order).

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Table: 95F0430X2001006
    Description:

    This table shows 2001 Census data for the following levels of geography: Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions.

    This table is part of the topic "Earnings of Canadians," which presents 2001 Census data on the employment earnings (wages and salaries, net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice and net farm self-employment income) of Canadians in 2000. The data also include earnings by sex, age and geographic area, as well as for certain population groups (such as immigrants). This topic also features educational attainment and employment earnings for different population groups.

    It is also possible to subscribe to all the day-of-release bundles. For more information, refer to Catalogue No. 97F0023XCB.

    Release date: 2003-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.

    Release date: 2002-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002186
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.

    After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.

    When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.

    It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.

    The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.

    Release date: 2002-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010126036
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The issue of male-female wage inequality is complex, and requires analysis from a number of different perspectives. This article demonstrates the importance of measurement, decomposition techniques and differences in the gap along the wage scale.

    Release date: 2001-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001157
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to investigate the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. Like other studies using standard decomposition techniques and controlling for a variety of productivity-related characteristics, the results demonstrate that men still enjoy a wage advantage over women: women's average hourly wage rate is about 84% - 89% of the men's average. Unlike other studies, controls for work experience and job-related responsibilities are used. Gender differences in full-year, full-time work experience explain at most, 12% of the gender wage gap. Gender differences in the opportunity to supervise and to perform certain tasks account for about 5% of the gender wage gap. Yet despite the long list of productivity related factors, a substantial portion of the gender wage gap cannot be explained.

    Many studies rely on measures such as age or potential experience (= age minus number of years of schooling minus six) as a proxy for actual labour market. Neither of these measures account for complete withdrawals from the labour market nor for restrictions on the number of hours worked per week or on the number of weeks worked per year due to family-related responsibilities. The results show that proxies for experience yield larger adjusted gender wage gaps than when actual experience is used.

    Release date: 2001-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20
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Analysis (35)

Analysis (35) (0 to 10 of 35 results)

  • Stats in brief: 89-28-0001201800100010
    Description:

    The purpose of this edition is to raise awareness about the gender wage gap. It does so by presenting "Equal Pay Day" on the date when women effectively start working for free in Canada, and by providing a general overview of women's experiences in the labour market.

    Release date: 2018-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154974
    Description:

    This study uses the 2017 and 2018 Labour Force Survey to provide a recent profile of minimum wage workers. The paper focuses on three groups of minimum wage workers: students aged 15 to 24 and non-students the same age living with their parents (referred to below as minimum wage workers under 25); individuals aged 15 to 64 who are single, lone parents or spouses/partners in single-earner couples; and individuals aged 15 to 64 who are spouses/partners in dual-earner couples. The article documents the relative importance of these three groups as well as their weekly wages and work patterns.

    Release date: 2018-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018082
    Description:

    The Canadian and U.S. labour markets have experienced a number of economic shocks since the early 2000s. This Economic Insights article assesses how employment rates and wages of persons aged 25 to 54 evolved in Canada and the United States from 2000 to 2017. The analysis is based on data from Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), and on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey (CPS).

    Release date: 2018-06-04

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2018013
    Description:

    This infographic provides information on the employment rates and wages of Canadian and American workers aged 25 to 54 who did not have a bachelor’s degree or a higher level of education in 2017.

    Release date: 2018-06-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018405
    Description:

    Over the last three decades, full-time jobs and permanent jobs have generally become scarcer for youth. In addition, median real hourly wages of young men employed in full-time jobs grew little, if at all, from the early 1980s to the mid-2010s. Along with other pieces of evidence from media reports, these facts have raised concerns that recent youth cohorts now experience less favourable earnings trajectories as they age than previous cohorts did 40 years ago. This study compares the earnings trajectories of several recent cohorts of young workers with those of cohorts who entered the labour market in the late 1970s. The study combines three versions of Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Worker file (LWF) and covers the 1978-to-2015 period.

    Release date: 2018-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017400
    Description:

    Despite a large literature estimating the effects of income taxation on the labour decisions of young and middle-aged workers, little is known about the extent to which older workers respond to changes in their income taxes. This paper explores this unresolved empirical issue, using longitudinal administrative data on more than one million individuals from Canada and exploiting a recent tax reform in the empirical identification strategy that explicitly targeted older couples. The findings offer new insight into the “black box” of intra-household labour supply and inform the optimal designs of income tax and retirement income systems.

    Release date: 2017-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2017004
    Description:

    This month’s edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at labour force participation, unemployment, full-time and part-time work, and real wages for young workers in Canada from 1946 to 2015.

    Release date: 2017-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100111394
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The gender gap in hourly wages narrowed between the late 1980s and the late 2000s. This article analyses the narrowing wage gap according to the changing characteristics of men and women in paid work, the changes in pay received for those characteristics, and the extent to which who works in each period affects the results.

    Release date: 2010-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111388
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The economic well-being chapter of Women in Canada examines several factors related to well-being of women and compares it to that for men. More specifically, it examines total income and earnings, assets, debts and net worth by family type and age. Information on pension coverage, RRSP contributions, incidence of low income and dual earners is included.

    Release date: 2010-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910313227
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    A sizeable earnings gap exists between Canadian women with children and those without. Women with children earned, on average, 12% less than women without children, and the gap increased with the number of children. Lone mothers, mothers with long career interruptions, and mothers with at least some postsecondary education experienced greater losses than married mothers, mothers with no or short career interruptions, and mothers with no more than a high school education.

    Release date: 2009-06-19
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