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- 11. The Demographic Foundations of Rising Employment and Earnings Among Single Mothers in Canada and the United States, 1980 to 2000 ArchivedArticles and reports: 11F0019M2008305Geography: CanadaDescription:
Despite comparatively modest welfare reforms in Canada relative to those of the United States, employment rates and earnings among single mothers have risen by virtually identical magnitudes in the two countries since 1980. We show that most of the gains in Canada and a substantial share of the change in the United States were the result of the dynamics of cohort replacement and population aging as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering their forties. In both countries, demographic effects were the main factor accounting for higher employment and earnings among older (40 and over) single mothers. Changes among younger single mothers, in contrast, were mainly the result of changes in labour market behaviour and other unmeasured variables. Overall, demographic changes dominated in Canada but not in the United States for two reasons: (a) Canadian single mothers are significantly older than their U.S. counterparts; and, (b) consistent with the welfare reform thesis, the magnitude of behavioural change among younger single mothers was much larger in the United States.Release date: 2008-03-07
- 12. Has Higher Education Among Young Women Substantially Reduced the Gender Gap in Employment and Earnings? ArchivedArticles and reports: 11F0019M2007301Geography: CanadaDescription:
Young women have gained considerable ground on young men in terms of educational attainment in the 1990s. The objective of this study is to assess the role of rapidly rising educational attainment among young women in raising their relative position in the labour market. The findings suggest that the educational trends have not contributed towards a decline in the full-time employment gap. Nevertheless, they have contributed towards a decline in the gender earnings gap, especially in the 1990s. However, university-educated women have lost ground to university-educated men. This is likely due to the fact that men and women continued to choose traditional disciplines during the 1990s, but only male-dominated disciplines saw improvements in average earnings.Release date: 2007-06-12
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004235Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper reports the results of an empirical analysis of the gender earnings gap among recent Canadian bachelor-level university graduates. Hours of work are the single most important influence on the gap; past work experience, job characteristics, family status, province of residence, and language have smaller and more mixed effects.Release date: 2004-11-30
- Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.Release date: 2002-07-30
- 15. Wives, Mothers and Wages: Does Timing Matter? ArchivedArticles and reports: 11F0019M2002186Geography: CanadaDescription:
Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.
After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.
When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.
It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.
The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.Release date: 2002-05-01
- 16. The male-female wage gap ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X20010126036Geography: CanadaDescription:
The issue of male-female wage inequality is complex, and requires analysis from a number of different perspectives. This article demonstrates the importance of measurement, decomposition techniques and differences in the gap along the wage scale.Release date: 2001-12-17
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001157Geography: CanadaDescription:
This article uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to investigate the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. Like other studies using standard decomposition techniques and controlling for a variety of productivity-related characteristics, the results demonstrate that men still enjoy a wage advantage over women: women's average hourly wage rate is about 84% - 89% of the men's average. Unlike other studies, controls for work experience and job-related responsibilities are used. Gender differences in full-year, full-time work experience explain at most, 12% of the gender wage gap. Gender differences in the opportunity to supervise and to perform certain tasks account for about 5% of the gender wage gap. Yet despite the long list of productivity related factors, a substantial portion of the gender wage gap cannot be explained.
Many studies rely on measures such as age or potential experience (= age minus number of years of schooling minus six) as a proxy for actual labour market. Neither of these measures account for complete withdrawals from the labour market nor for restrictions on the number of hours worked per week or on the number of weeks worked per year due to family-related responsibilities. The results show that proxies for experience yield larger adjusted gender wage gaps than when actual experience is used.Release date: 2001-01-30
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140Geography: CanadaDescription:
The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.Release date: 2000-09-05
- Articles and reports: 75F0002M1999008Description:
This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).Release date: 1999-12-20
- 20. Women's earnings/men's earnings ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X19990044755Geography: CanadaDescription:
In addition to the Survey of Consumer Finances, the Labour Force Survey now provides a way of comparing women's earnings with men's. The tow measures are explained here, as are the reasons for the sizable gap between them.Release date: 1999-12-01
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Analysis (33) (0 to 10 of 33 results)
- Articles and reports: 75-006-X201800154974Description:
This study uses the 2017 and 2018 Labour Force Survey to provide a recent profile of minimum wage workers. The paper focuses on three groups of minimum wage workers: students aged 15 to 24 and non-students the same age living with their parents (referred to below as minimum wage workers under 25); individuals aged 15 to 64 who are single, lone parents or spouses/partners in single-earner couples; and individuals aged 15 to 64 who are spouses/partners in dual-earner couples. The article documents the relative importance of these three groups as well as their weekly wages and work patterns.Release date: 2018-06-13
- Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018082Description:
The Canadian and U.S. labour markets have experienced a number of economic shocks since the early 2000s. This Economic Insights article assesses how employment rates and wages of persons aged 25 to 54 evolved in Canada and the United States from 2000 to 2017. The analysis is based on data from Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS), and on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey (CPS).Release date: 2018-06-04
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2018405Description:
Over the last three decades, full-time jobs and permanent jobs have generally become scarcer for youth. In addition, median real hourly wages of young men employed in full-time jobs grew little, if at all, from the early 1980s to the mid-2010s. Along with other pieces of evidence from media reports, these facts have raised concerns that recent youth cohorts now experience less favourable earnings trajectories as they age than previous cohorts did 40 years ago. This study compares the earnings trajectories of several recent cohorts of young workers with those of cohorts who entered the labour market in the late 1970s. The study combines three versions of Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Worker file (LWF) and covers the 1978-to-2015 period.Release date: 2018-05-29
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017400Description:
Despite a large literature estimating the effects of income taxation on the labour decisions of young and middle-aged workers, little is known about the extent to which older workers respond to changes in their income taxes. This paper explores this unresolved empirical issue, using longitudinal administrative data on more than one million individuals from Canada and exploiting a recent tax reform in the empirical identification strategy that explicitly targeted older couples. The findings offer new insight into the “black box” of intra-household labour supply and inform the optimal designs of income tax and retirement income systems.Release date: 2017-11-23
- Articles and reports: 11-630-X2017004Description:
This month’s edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at labour force participation, unemployment, full-time and part-time work, and real wages for young workers in Canada from 1946 to 2015.Release date: 2017-05-31
- 6. Why has the gender wage gap narrowed? ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X201100111394Geography: CanadaDescription:
The gender gap in hourly wages narrowed between the late 1980s and the late 2000s. This article analyses the narrowing wage gap according to the changing characteristics of men and women in paid work, the changes in pay received for those characteristics, and the extent to which who works in each period affects the results.Release date: 2010-12-20
- 7. Economic well-being ArchivedArticles and reports: 89-503-X201000111388Geography: CanadaDescription:
The economic well-being chapter of Women in Canada examines several factors related to well-being of women and compares it to that for men. More specifically, it examines total income and earnings, assets, debts and net worth by family type and age. Information on pension coverage, RRSP contributions, incidence of low income and dual earners is included.Release date: 2010-12-16
- 8. Earnings of women with and without children ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X200910313227Geography: CanadaDescription:
A sizeable earnings gap exists between Canadian women with children and those without. Women with children earned, on average, 12% less than women without children, and the gap increased with the number of children. Lone mothers, mothers with long career interruptions, and mothers with at least some postsecondary education experienced greater losses than married mothers, mothers with no or short career interruptions, and mothers with no more than a high school education.Release date: 2009-06-19
- 9. Age and earnings ArchivedArticles and reports: 75-001-X200910113222Geography: CanadaDescription:
Traditional age-earnings profiles, based on cross-sectional data, typically follow an inverted U-shaped pattern with annual earnings peaking around middle age. With longitudinal data on hourly earnings, the picture changes considerably.Release date: 2009-03-18
- Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311Geography: CanadaDescription:
This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.Release date: 2008-12-18
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