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All (46) (0 to 10 of 46 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018084
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the changes in productivity dispersion in Canadian manufacturing—that is, the difference between the productivity performance of the most productive plants (frontier plants) and the productivity performance of all remaining plants (non frontier plants). It examines the relationship between changes in productivity dispersion, aggregate manufacturing productivity growth and exchange rate movements.

    Release date: 2018-11-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016373
    Description:

    This paper examines how much of the slowdown in productivity growth observed in Canada’s business sector between the 1990s (1990 to 1999) and the 2000s (2000 to 2014) was due to weaker productivity growth within industries and how much was due to structural adjustment. The analysis makes use of a decomposition method that differs from many of the standard labour productivity decomposition approaches commonly found in the literature and allows the contributions of changes in the importance of individual industries to be calculated.

    Release date: 2016-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2014036
    Description:

    Leasing is an important means of gaining access to assets, of obtaining finance, and of reducing a lessee’s exposure to the risks inherent to asset ownership. A lease can be either a financial lease (capital lease) or an operating lease (capital rental). A financial lease is one where the legal owner of an asset (lessor) passes the economic ownership to the user of the asset (lessee), who then accepts the operating risks and receives the economic benefits from using the asset in a productive activity. Under an operating lease, the lessor is both the legal owner and the economic owner of the asset leased (rented), bearing the operating risks and receiving the economic benefits from the asset. The lessor transfers only the right to use the asset to the lessee.

    Leasing offers firms the possibility to acquire the right to use capital assets under terms that differ from those prevailing through other financial instruments. The recording of leased assets in the Canadian System of National Accounts is ownership-based rather than user-based. The separation of capital ownership, in particular legal ownership, from the use of capital assets poses challenges to productivity measurement. To obtain consistent productivity measures at an industry level, leased and rented capital assets must be reallocated from owners’ accounts to users’ accounts. By using the General Index of Financial Information (GIFI) corporate balance sheets and detailed input-output tables, this paper tests the robustness of existing practices of data collection on leased and rented capital.

    Release date: 2014-07-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014088
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper compares the relative importance of small and large firms in the business sectors of Canada and the United States from 2002 to 2008 using estimates of the contribution of small and large firms to the gross domestic product (GDP) of each country. It then makes use of estimates of labour input for comparison purposes. In this paper, small firms are defined as those with fewer than 500 employees and large firms as those with 500 or more employees.

    Release date: 2014-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2014033
    Description:

    This paper examines and compares labour productivity in Canada and the United States for small and large firms over the period from 2002 to 2008. It quantifies the relative importance of small and large firms in Canada and the United States and measures the relative productivity levels of small versus large firms.

    Small firms are relatively more important in the Canadian economy. Small firms are less productive than large firms in both countries. But the productivity disadvantage of small relative to large firms was higher in Canada.

    The paper provides an estimate of the impact that these differences have on the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States. It first estimates the changes that would occur in Canadian aggregate labour productivity if the share of hours worked of large firms in Canada was increased to the U.S. level. It then quantifies the impact of increasing the relative productivity of small to large firms in Canada up to the relative productivity ratio of small firms to large firms that existed in the United States.

    Together, decreasing the relative importance of small firms in the economy and increasing their relative productivity compared to large firms accounts for most of the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States in 2002. However, changes in the economy that occurred between 2002 and 2008 reduced the contribution of the small-firm sector to the gap in productivity levels.

    Release date: 2014-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2013032
    Description:

    This paper examines differences in labour productivity across small, medium- and large-sized enterprises in Canada.

    In 2008, the level of labour productivity, as measured by nominal gross domestic product per hour worked, in large businesses was greater than that for medium-sized and small businesses. This gap between large businesses relative to small and medium-sized businesses narrowed slightly during the post-2000 period. The paper also examines the impact of changes in industrial structure on labour productivity.

    Release date: 2013-08-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013084
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    There is abundant evidence that many firms cluster together in space and that there is an association between clustering and productivity. This paper moves beyond identifying the broad effects of clustering and explores how different types of firms benefit from agglomeration. It advances research on agglomeration by showing, first, that not all firms gain to the same degree from co-location and, second, that businesses with different internal capabilities capture different forms of geographical externalities. The empirical analysis focuses on Canadian manufacturing establishments operating over the period from 1989 to 1999.

    Release date: 2013-02-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012016
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series discusses the impact of capitalization of research and development (R&D) expenditure on gross domestic product (GDP) and productivity growth. Capitalizing R&D expenditure increases the scope of investment, and hence, the level of measured capital and GDP. Because R&D expenditure accounts for a small share of GDP, R&D capitalization has little impact on GDP and labour productivity growth.

    Release date: 2012-10-12
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Analysis (46)

Analysis (46) (0 to 10 of 46 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2018084
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the changes in productivity dispersion in Canadian manufacturing—that is, the difference between the productivity performance of the most productive plants (frontier plants) and the productivity performance of all remaining plants (non frontier plants). It examines the relationship between changes in productivity dispersion, aggregate manufacturing productivity growth and exchange rate movements.

    Release date: 2018-11-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016373
    Description:

    This paper examines how much of the slowdown in productivity growth observed in Canada’s business sector between the 1990s (1990 to 1999) and the 2000s (2000 to 2014) was due to weaker productivity growth within industries and how much was due to structural adjustment. The analysis makes use of a decomposition method that differs from many of the standard labour productivity decomposition approaches commonly found in the literature and allows the contributions of changes in the importance of individual industries to be calculated.

    Release date: 2016-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016057
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article addresses the extent to which immigrants contribute to economic growth. For the first time, the business ownership and job-creation activities of immigrants are addressed. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2014036
    Description:

    Leasing is an important means of gaining access to assets, of obtaining finance, and of reducing a lessee’s exposure to the risks inherent to asset ownership. A lease can be either a financial lease (capital lease) or an operating lease (capital rental). A financial lease is one where the legal owner of an asset (lessor) passes the economic ownership to the user of the asset (lessee), who then accepts the operating risks and receives the economic benefits from using the asset in a productive activity. Under an operating lease, the lessor is both the legal owner and the economic owner of the asset leased (rented), bearing the operating risks and receiving the economic benefits from the asset. The lessor transfers only the right to use the asset to the lessee.

    Leasing offers firms the possibility to acquire the right to use capital assets under terms that differ from those prevailing through other financial instruments. The recording of leased assets in the Canadian System of National Accounts is ownership-based rather than user-based. The separation of capital ownership, in particular legal ownership, from the use of capital assets poses challenges to productivity measurement. To obtain consistent productivity measures at an industry level, leased and rented capital assets must be reallocated from owners’ accounts to users’ accounts. By using the General Index of Financial Information (GIFI) corporate balance sheets and detailed input-output tables, this paper tests the robustness of existing practices of data collection on leased and rented capital.

    Release date: 2014-07-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014088
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper compares the relative importance of small and large firms in the business sectors of Canada and the United States from 2002 to 2008 using estimates of the contribution of small and large firms to the gross domestic product (GDP) of each country. It then makes use of estimates of labour input for comparison purposes. In this paper, small firms are defined as those with fewer than 500 employees and large firms as those with 500 or more employees.

    Release date: 2014-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2014033
    Description:

    This paper examines and compares labour productivity in Canada and the United States for small and large firms over the period from 2002 to 2008. It quantifies the relative importance of small and large firms in Canada and the United States and measures the relative productivity levels of small versus large firms.

    Small firms are relatively more important in the Canadian economy. Small firms are less productive than large firms in both countries. But the productivity disadvantage of small relative to large firms was higher in Canada.

    The paper provides an estimate of the impact that these differences have on the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States. It first estimates the changes that would occur in Canadian aggregate labour productivity if the share of hours worked of large firms in Canada was increased to the U.S. level. It then quantifies the impact of increasing the relative productivity of small to large firms in Canada up to the relative productivity ratio of small firms to large firms that existed in the United States.

    Together, decreasing the relative importance of small firms in the economy and increasing their relative productivity compared to large firms accounts for most of the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States in 2002. However, changes in the economy that occurred between 2002 and 2008 reduced the contribution of the small-firm sector to the gap in productivity levels.

    Release date: 2014-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 15-206-X2013032
    Description:

    This paper examines differences in labour productivity across small, medium- and large-sized enterprises in Canada.

    In 2008, the level of labour productivity, as measured by nominal gross domestic product per hour worked, in large businesses was greater than that for medium-sized and small businesses. This gap between large businesses relative to small and medium-sized businesses narrowed slightly during the post-2000 period. The paper also examines the impact of changes in industrial structure on labour productivity.

    Release date: 2013-08-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013084
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    There is abundant evidence that many firms cluster together in space and that there is an association between clustering and productivity. This paper moves beyond identifying the broad effects of clustering and explores how different types of firms benefit from agglomeration. It advances research on agglomeration by showing, first, that not all firms gain to the same degree from co-location and, second, that businesses with different internal capabilities capture different forms of geographical externalities. The empirical analysis focuses on Canadian manufacturing establishments operating over the period from 1989 to 1999.

    Release date: 2013-02-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012016
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series discusses the impact of capitalization of research and development (R&D) expenditure on gross domestic product (GDP) and productivity growth. Capitalizing R&D expenditure increases the scope of investment, and hence, the level of measured capital and GDP. Because R&D expenditure accounts for a small share of GDP, R&D capitalization has little impact on GDP and labour productivity growth.

    Release date: 2012-10-12
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