Entry, exit, mergers and growth

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006042
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which productivity growth is the result of firm turnover as output is shifted from one firm to another, driven by the competitive process. Turnover occurs as some firms gain market share and others lose it. Some of the resulting turnover is due to entry and exit. Another part arises from growth and decline in incumbent continuing firms. This paper proposes a method for measuring the impact of firm turnover on productivity growth and shows that it is far more important than many previous empirical studies have concluded. It argues that firm turnover associated with competition is the main source of aggregate labour productivity growth in Canadian manufacturing industries.

    Release date: 2006-09-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006013
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper summarizes the findings of a research program aimed at outlining the importance to the firm growth process of competencies that arise from investments in intangible assets. The program has consisted of two parts. First, longitudinal databases have provided a rich set of studies on entry, exit, mergers and other aspects of dynamics related to growth and decline in firm populations. These studies have shown the pervasiveness of growth and decline in the firm population. By themselves, these studies do not demonstrate what strategies differentiate the most successful from the least successful. To do so, we have built a set of firm surveys that allowed profiles to be developed of the type of competencies that stem from investments in organizational capital. In turn, these are linked to administrative data that allow us to classify firms as either growing or declining. We then asked how differences in competencies were related to the performance of firms.

    Release date: 2006-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006014
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper provides an analysis of trends in business sector head office employment in Canada from 1999 to 2005. It investigates changes in the number of head offices and head office employment over this period. The paper also examines the effect of foreign ownership on head office employment. It asks how much foreign-controlled firms contribute to Canadian head office employment and employment growth and what happens to head office employment when control of a firm changes from domestic to foreign. The paper also looks at the rate at which head offices enter and exit over time with a view to ascertaining whether the loss of a head office is a rare occurrence or a relatively common event. Finally, the paper presents trends in head office employment across metropolitan areas over the past six years.

    Release date: 2006-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20060029238
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In Canada, two-in three new businesses do not survive to their fifth year. Business incubators provide space, advice and other support designed to assist new and growing businesses to become established and profitable. There are at least 78 operating business incubators in Canada and their funding totals almost $40 million which are discussed in this article.

    Release date: 2006-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2006003
    Description:

    The objective of this study was to continue the investigation into growth factors initiated by the previous project: The characteristics of firms that grow from small to medium size in collaboration with the National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP). Twenty five interviews augmented the original 25 with a more heterogeneous mix of Canadian technology-based firms led to the development of a framework for assessing the technology phase of small companies (or business lines in larger companies).

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Table: 61-534-X
    Description:

    This publication describes the evolution of the Canadian business environment in light of economic changes in Canada from 1991 to 2001. The publication shows business and employment dynamics in Canada during this period. It provides (1) statistics that show the direct impact of these changes on business creation (firm births) and business destruction (firm deaths); (2) the relative share and distribution of businesses and employment across various categories of firms (Size - small, medium and large size firms, Industry - low-knowledge, medium-knowledge and high-knowledge industries, as well as goods and services industries and by Geography-Province); and (3) it examines survival rates of newly created businesses (lifespan of new businesses).

    Release date: 2006-03-10

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20050038761
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    For many organizations involved in economic development, business incubation is a key to creating and nurturing new business. There is currently very little information available on the business incubator sector in Canada. A new Statistics Canada pilot survey will collect and benchmark vital information on this largely unknown sector of the Canadian economy.

    Release date: 2005-10-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005033
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Plant deaths arise from failure when firms exit an industry. Plant deaths are also associated with renewal when incumbent firms close down plants and modernize their production facilities and start-up new plants.

    The rate of plant deaths affects the amount of change that occurs in labour and capital markets. Plant deaths result in job losses and incur significant human costs as employees are forced to seek other work. The death process also gives rise to capital losses - to the loss of earlier investments that the industrial system had made in productive capacity. This paper makes use of the plant-death date to provide new information on the likely length of life of capital invested in plants.

    This paper measures the death rate over a forty year period for new plants in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It develops a profile of the death rate for entrants as they age. On average, 14% of new plants die in their first year. Over half of new plants die by the age of six. By the age of 15, less than 20% are still alive.

    As a result, manufacturing plants have relatively short lives. The average new plant lives only nine years (17 years if the average is employment-weighted). These rates vary by industry. The longest length of life (13 years) can be found in two industries -primary metals and paper and allied products. The shortest average length of life (less than 8 years) occurs in wood industries.

    Release date: 2005-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005010
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper tracks the growth and decline of information and communications technology (ICT) industries that were synonymous with the so-called new economy boom of the late-1990s and its subsequent bust period in the early 2000s. The analysis focuses on the question of whether the ICT bust has been accompanied by a structural shift illustrated by less firm turnover. It shows that to date there is little evidence of a structural shift. Entry rates of new establishments within the ICT sector were above those of other sectors within the economy during both the ICT boom and bust. This is evidence that both firms and entrepreneurs continued to see opportunities to develop new products and markets even during a time of retrenchment. The location of the ICT sector also show little evidence of a change.

    Release date: 2005-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2005005
    Description:

    This working paper illustrates the industries and communities that have the highest proportions of quickly growing small firms. It provides an estimate of the number of small companies that have grown to medium-sized between 1995 and 2000. The data analysed in this paper are from the LEAP-SAF (Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program: Small Area File), a synthetic database constructed from various administrative sources.

    Release date: 2005-02-23
Data (16)

Data (16) (0 to 10 of 16 results)

  • Table: 33-10-0164-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 527-0001)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description:

    This table contains 2736 series, with data starting from 2001 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years). This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (1 item: Canada) Business dynamics measure (16 items: Number of active employer businesses in the private sector; Number of entrants; Number of incumbents; Number of exits; ...) North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) (19 items: Private sector; Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting; Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; Utilities; ...) Firm size (9 items: Private sector; From 0 to less than 100 employees; From 0 to less than 50 employees; Less than 5 employees; ...).

    Release date: 2019-06-10

  • Table: 33-10-0165-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 527-0013)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Quarterly
    Description:

    This table contains 170 series, with data for years 2000 - 2017 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years). This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (1 item: Canada) Business dynamics measure (10 items: Number of active employer businesses in the private sector; Number of entrants; Number of exits; Entry rate; ...) North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) (17 items: Private sector; Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting; Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; Utilities; ...).

    Release date: 2019-04-03

  • Table: 33-10-0176-01
    Geography: Canada, Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Frequency: Occasional
    Description:

    Percentage of enterprises for which specific events occurred in the main geographical market, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code and enterprise size, based on a one-year observation period. Specific events include entry of new competitor(s), exit of competitor(s), increase in competitive behaviour from existing competitors, and decrease in competitive behaviour from existing competitors.

    Release date: 2019-03-13

  • Table: 33-10-0087-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 527-0007)
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Counts of Entrants, Incumbents, and Exits by North American Industry Classification System, for each province and territory from the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program.
    Release date: 2018-11-21

  • Table: 33-10-0088-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 527-0008)
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada, Province or territory
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Entrants, Incumbents, and Exits by firm size, for each province and territory from the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program.
    Release date: 2018-11-21

  • Table: 33-10-0136-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 529-0001)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Active enterprises with one or more employees, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and enterprise size.
    Release date: 2015-12-07

  • Table: 33-10-0137-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 529-0002)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Employer enterprise births, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and enterprise size.
    Release date: 2015-12-07

  • Table: 33-10-0138-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 529-0003)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Employer enterprise deaths, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and enterprise size.
    Release date: 2015-12-07

  • Table: 33-10-0139-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 529-0004)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Number of employer enterprises newly born having survived one year, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and enterprise size.
    Release date: 2015-12-07

  • Table: 33-10-0140-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 529-0005)
    Geography: Canada
    Frequency: Annual
    Description: Number of employer enterprises newly born having survived two years, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and enterprise size.
    Release date: 2015-12-07
Analysis (63)

Analysis (63) (50 to 60 of 63 results)

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X19990025344
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    A Statistics Canada study uses business demographics to learn about innovation and technological change and uncovers interesting patterns. Contrary to expectations, the author uncovered considerable volatility (start-ups and closures) in the service sector. The volatility rate for this sector was 31% compared with 23% for the manufacturing sector. Firms that do not innovate frequently are replaced by new ones that have new or improved products to offer or by those that employ more efficient methods of production and delivery.

    Release date: 2000-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19990024720
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study has two goals. The first is to determine what share of the total chain-store market big-box stores have carved out for themselves in recent years - in terms of numbers and locations, sales and floor space. This information is useful for those concerned with changing market structures, as well as for the general public. Secondly, the "effectiveness" of big-box stores is then compared with that of other stores.

    Release date: 1999-10-13

  • Journals and periodicals: 88-517-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    New firms are seen to play a key role in the innovation process, especially in certain key sectors of the economy. This study therefore examines the differences in the profiles of successful new firms in science-based industries and other industries. The firms that are examined are entrants who survey into their early teen years. The study examines numerous factors that are seen to influence the success of new businesses. These include the competitive environment, business strategies and the financial structure of the businesses.

    Successful new firms in science-based industries are found to differ in a number of dimensions from new firms in other industries. They are more likely to be exporters. They face greater technological change and intense competition with regards to the rate at which new products are being introduced. They tend to put more emphasis on quality, the frequent introduction of new products and the customization of products. They make greater use of information technology. They place more stress on new technology development, research and development facilities and the use of intellectual property. They are much more likely to innovate and they place more importance on recruiting skilled labour and on training. Finally, they are more likely to use non-traditional financial measures to evaluate performance and they are less likely to rely on secured credit for financing both their research and development activity and their machinery and equipment that are firms in other sectors.

    Release date: 1999-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999121
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Entry and exit are important phenomena. This paper reviews the evidence on the size of this process and its contribution to productivity and innovation. It then develops a detailed portrait of the characteristics of new firms that survive and those that fail. In doing so, it examines the type of competencies that are developed in both groups of firms. It asks which competencies are developed by new firms. In particular, it focuses on the innovative capabilities of new firms. It shows that small firms in general and entrants in particular are heterogeneous when it comes to their innovative activity. The types of innovative activity in which they are engaged vary widely. Some focus on research and development (R&D) and new products. Others focus on new technologies. Still others stress the development of human capital. In addition, this paper examines the competitive environment that new firms face and the connection between growth and innovation. It also examines the complementary skills that are employed by innovators. Finally, the paper focuses on the causes of failure in the firm population. It extends earlier work that finds that failing firms differ from surviving firms in terms of basic competencies-management, financial management and marketing capabilities.

    Release date: 1999-02-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 61-525-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Bankruptcy rates have been increasing in Canada. Almost half of the firms in Canada that go bankrupt do so primarily because of their own deficiencies rather than externally generated problems. They do not develop the basic internal strengths to survive. Overall weakness in management, combined with a lack of market for their product, cause these firms to fail.

    This study suggests that the underlying factor contributing to financial difficulties is management failure rather than external factors associated with imperfect capital markets. Many bankrupt firms face problems in attaining financing in capital markets; but, it is the internal lack of managerial expertise in many of these firms that prevents exploration of different financing options.

    Release date: 1998-04-01

  • Articles and reports: 61-532-X19970013493
    Description:

    The objective of this brief paper is to describe recent trends in the merger and acquisition (M&A) activity in the forest products industry in Canada. The two driving forces most often cited in M&A activity are rising capital costs and full product line servicing. Both of these factors have been at play at various times in the history of forest products industry. However, over the last few years there has been a growing national and global perception that current wood supplies would not be able to satisfy future demand. While the trend away from diversification of earlier decades towards the more recent consolidation of "core" product lines may be the stated reason for the many cases of restructuring, it is felt that the real driving force is the increasing uncertainty associated with raw material supplies. This in turn suggests that possible future "inter-regional" M&A activity may help to secure wood fibre supplies - directly or indirectly - and mitigate increases.

    Release date: 1998-02-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997108
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Trade exerts generally favourable effects on the performance of domestic manufacturing industries in the dimensions of allocative and productive efficiency. This paper reviews theory and recent evidence on these linkages and also explore a third effect-on the turbulence of competitive conditions and the turnover of business units. Calculations using primary census records for Canada over 1973-1992 indicate, with time and industry effect, controlled, market-share turnover, entry, exit, and mergers all increase with trade exposure. The effect is tied to market structures of differentiated products but broad international disturbances (North American Free Trade Area) also have significant effects. The normative significant of turbulence is mixed but has important positive components.

    Release date: 1997-10-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994061
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates structural change at the national and the regional level in five broadly defined sectors of the Canadian economy -- the natural-resource-based, the labour-intensive, the scale-based, the product-differentiated, and the science-based sectors. Three aspects of change are examined. First, changes in the importance of each sector over the last twenty years are traced. Second, the amount of internal change within each sector -- changes in the importance of individual industries in each sector and the nature of job turnover within industries are examined. Finally, the extent to which wage differentials have widened over time is examined.

    Release date: 1996-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995078
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the dynamics of job reallocation in the manufacturing sector of Canada. It does so by examining the pattern and magnitude of job gain, job loss, and total job turnover due to growth and decline of some firms, and entry and exit of other firms. It also investigates how the effect of cyclical as opposed to structural influences on job turnover have changed over time. Finally, the paper investigates whether the pattern and magnitude of job turnover differ across industries and across regions, and whether the differences are either caused by differences in cyclical sensitivity of job creation and job destruction or in the extent to which restructuring is taking place.

    Release date: 1995-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1994072
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the maturation process of firms that enter an industry by constructing new plant and investigates the extent to which improvements in the performance of an entry cohort are the result of a selection process that culls out the most inefficient entrants or of a learning process that allows survivors to improve their performance relative to incumbent firms. Both selection and evolutionary learning are related to post-entry performance. Despite the difference in the effect of selection and learning on the amount of post-entry growth, selection per se is a more important contributor to overall growth of a cohort.

    Release date: 1995-04-30
Reference (2)

Reference (2) ((2 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5056
    Description: Science, Innovation and Electronic Information Division is engaged in a joint project with the National Research Council's Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) to investigate the characteristics of growth firms.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5157
    Description: The objective of the Entrepreneurship Indicators Database is to provide comprehensive business demography statistics and performance indicators for enterprises in Canada.
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