Business adaptation and adjustment

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005257
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Trade liberalization, profitability, and financial leverage. Changes in international trade policy may influence financial leverage, the relative importance of debt as opposed to equity in financing the firm, expressed by a debt-to-asset ratio. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate empirically whether trade liberalization has an impact on leverage. The second is to estimate the effect of trade liberalization on profitability. Changes in trade policy are a major part of the international business environment, and our theoretical formulation suggests that trade liberalization influences leverage largely through its effect on profits. Therefore, testing the link between liberalization and profits is a central test of our overall theoretical structure. The paper is divided into the following sections: four testable hypotheses regarding the possible effect of trade liberalization on profits and leverage; a description of the data set; empirical results and analysis; and concluding remarks.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005031
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper studies the impact that a small country joining a regional trade agreement, but particularly a small country, might be expected to gain from the exploitation of scale economies. It makes use of the experience of Canada when it entered into the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in the early 1990s.

    It finds that there was a general increase in the pace of plant commodity specialization around the time of implementation of the Free Trade Agreement. At the time of the treaty, plant diversity was found to be higher in larger plants and in industries with assets that are associated with scope economies. Diversity was also higher in industries that had higher rates of tariff protection.

    Over the 1980s and 1990s, plant diversity decreased with reductions in both U.S. and Canadian tariffs. And the decline was greater during the post FTA era than before, thereby suggesting that this treaty had an impact above and beyond that just engendered by the tariff reductions that were associated with it. The study also found that foreign-controlled plants tended to adjust more over the entire period.

    Release date: 2005-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005029
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper uses a detailed industry-level data base of industry prices in the manufacturing sector in Canada and the United States to investigate whether prices are co-integrated in the two countries and whether the relationship between the two sets of prices follows the law of one price. We find that aggregate Canadian price movements track U.S. price movements closely, but not perfectly, in the long run. But there are substantial deviations from the law of one price in the short run. Moreover, many individual industries deviate from the law of one price. These deviations are related to the degree of tariff protection and to the degree of product differentiation at the industry level.

    Release date: 2005-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004208
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    There is much debate over whether agents form rational expectations of variables or whether they suffer from systematic errors in judgment. This paper estimates models for plant-level survey data in order to test rationality for those manufacturing plants that report expectations of capital expenditures. An advantage of using such data is that rationality is tested in markets where agents may not have knowledge of each others' expectations so strategic motives behind purposefully irrational forecasts are minimized. Statistical estimates and test results suggest that expectations may indeed be rational depending on size. That is to say that the larger a plant is, the more resources it can expend on forecasting its future needs. Thus, the statistical results in this paper validate, for the first time, a class of assumptions in the macroeconomic literature.

    Release date: 2004-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2004027
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The paper examines how Canadian manufacturing plants have responded to reductions in tariff barriers between Canada and the rest of world over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2004-12-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004012
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada
    Description:

    This activity is designed to show students some of the changes affecting Prairie agriculture over the past 100 years, and how Prairie farmers have adapted to them.

    Release date: 2004-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004205
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper considers the implications of changing trade barriers on the survival of Canadian manufacturing firms. A segmented market Cournot model was developed to describe the effects of trade liberalization for heterogeneous firms operating in diverse industries. The predictions of this model are tested empirically using firm-level data for both public and private corporations and tariff rates for both Canada and the United States. Our findings suggest that Canadian tariff reductions decreased the probability of the survival of Canadian firms while declines in American tariffs increased the probability. Combining these two effects, firms in two-thirds of Canadian manufacturing industries saw their probability of survival increase as a result of the tariff reductions mandated by the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. However, the sensitivity of individual firms to tariff changes was mitigated by the characteristics of those firms. In particular, productivity and leverage played substantial roles in determining a firm's vulnerability to failure as a result of trade liberalization.

    Release date: 2004-04-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004217
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the link between financial structure and employment growth, and the link between financial structure and inventory growth, among incorporated Canadian manufacturers from 1988 to 1997. It finds that financially vulnerable firms - smaller firms and those with higher leverage - shed nearly 10% more labour than financially healthier firms for a given drop in product demand. The influence was larger during the recession of 1990 to 1992 indicating that higher financial vulnerability, reflected in high leverage, may have worsened during that period. The influence was also greater in sectors that experienced larger cyclical fluctuations. On average, firms with high leverage also tend to cut inventories 5% more when a shock in demand occurs.

    Release date: 2004-02-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003014
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines substantial productivity gains in Canadian manufacturing resulting from tariff reductions from the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement.

    Release date: 2003-09-08

  • Journals and periodicals: 54F0001X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Canada's major container ports have competed successfully against their U.S. counterparts for overseas container traffic. However, the ocean container shipping industry is undergoing changes that will impact on their relationships with ports and competition among ports for container traffic has been fierce. This paper explores how Canadian ports might fare in this increasingly competitive environment, based on their natural and man-made attributes, their competitive stance and their potential to meet the evolving ocean container industry.

    The assessment includes a review of the ocean container shipping industry, the North American container market and competing ports in the United States (U.S.). This report uses data from two sources, Statistics Canada's marine international origin/destination (O/D) database and the U.S. Department of Transport Maritime Administration's (MARAD) Annual Import Export Waterborne Databank which is based on Journal of Commerce P.I.E.R.S. data.

    The keys to the success of Canadian container ports have been a combination of natural endowments, investments in intermodal facilities and competitive pricing. These factors are likely to continue into the future, however, the competition among container ports is likely to intensify as industry consolidation continues and as publicly funded U.S. intermodal terminal and corridor projects come to fruition.

    Release date: 2003-06-09
Data (17)

Data (17) (0 to 10 of 17 results)

Analysis (40)

Analysis (40) (0 to 10 of 40 results)

  • Stats in brief: 45-28-0001202000100064
    Description:

    The COVID-19 pandemic triggered decisions at all levels of government to try and minimize its spread, including shutting down non-essential retail establishments. This led to an abrupt shift in the Canadian retail environment, to which many industries had to adapt. This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on retail e-commerce as a method of doing business during the first months of the pandemic.

    Release date: 2020-07-24

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202020624983
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-07-24

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2020052
    Description:

    This infographic presents the impact of COVID-19 on businesses in Canada and their recovery needs. Specifically, the infographic presents information on teleworking (before, during and after the pandemic), personal protective measures businesses plan to implement, personal protective equipment and supply needs, and actions businesses have taken to help themselves through the pandemic. Results are from the Canadian Survey on Business Conditions.

    Release date: 2020-07-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202019623725
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-07-14

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202004322583
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020005
    Description:

    Understanding intangible investments is essential for providing accurate measures of gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), gross domestic product (GDP) and productivity growth, and for understanding the innovation system. Statistical agencies need measures of intangible investment to produce economic statistics on aggregate activity that accurately measure concepts such as GDP, GFCF or savings. The levels of GDP, GFCF and savings will be underestimated to the extent that expenditures are incorrectly classified as intermediate inputs that are fully consumed during the period being measured—and not as investments that are not fully consumed during the period when the expenditures are incurred. Estimates for GDP and productivity growth rates may be similarly underestimated. This paper updates and expands upon the intangible capital estimates presented by Baldwin et al. (2009), who extended already measured intangibles (i.e., research and development [R&D], software, mineral exploration) to include additional asset classes consistent with international research on intangible capital measurement (see Corrado, Hulten and Sichel 2009).

    Release date: 2020-02-12

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202001721943
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020001
    Description:

    Multifactor productivity (MFP) declined in Canada from 2000 to 2009 and then recovered after. The movements in productivity since 2000 have attracted great attention from researchers and policy makers because productivity is important both for economic growth and for improvements in living standards. This paper applies the stochastic frontier framework to decompose each firm’s MFP into two parts: its technological frontier and its technical efficiency. Change in the aggregate technological frontier refers to improvements in the productivity potential of an economy, i.e., the maximum productivity of an economy if all firms are fully efficient. Aggregate technical efficiency reflects the economy’s capacity to achieve that potential. The results of this decomposition can show whether the movements in productivity after 2000 in Canada were mainly the result of changes in the technological frontier and productivity potential or of changes in the technical efficiency.

    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020002
    Description:

    Labour productivity growth in the business sector in Canada started to decline in 2000, from 2.3% per year in the period from 1991 to 2000 to 1.0% per year in the period from 2000 to 2015. This paper examines how innovation, innovation diffusion across firms, and business dynamism affected the productivity slowdown.

    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X20121875720
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-07-05
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004012
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada
    Description:

    This activity is designed to show students some of the changes affecting Prairie agriculture over the past 100 years, and how Prairie farmers have adapted to them.

    Release date: 2004-08-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 2936
    Description: This survey was sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5001
    Description: This survey is being conducted to measure the extent to which knowledge management practices are used or will be used by Canadian businesses.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5095
    Description: The survey mandate is to collect and benchmark vital information on the business incubator sector of the Canadian economy. The information is critical in assessing the business incubator sector and in developing programs to support them.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5171
    Description: Statistics Canada has undertaken this survey to provide statistical information on the strategic decisions, innovation activities and operational tactics used by Canadian enterprises. The survey also collects information on the involvement of enterprises in global value chains.
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