Business adaptation and adjustment

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2004027
    Geography: Canada

    The paper examines how Canadian manufacturing plants have responded to reductions in tariff barriers between Canada and the rest of world over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2004-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004205
    Geography: Canada

    This paper considers the implications of changing trade barriers on the survival of Canadian manufacturing firms. A segmented market Cournot model was developed to describe the effects of trade liberalization for heterogeneous firms operating in diverse industries. The predictions of this model are tested empirically using firm-level data for both public and private corporations and tariff rates for both Canada and the United States. Our findings suggest that Canadian tariff reductions decreased the probability of the survival of Canadian firms while declines in American tariffs increased the probability. Combining these two effects, firms in two-thirds of Canadian manufacturing industries saw their probability of survival increase as a result of the tariff reductions mandated by the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. However, the sensitivity of individual firms to tariff changes was mitigated by the characteristics of those firms. In particular, productivity and leverage played substantial roles in determining a firm's vulnerability to failure as a result of trade liberalization.

    Release date: 2004-04-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004217
    Geography: Canada

    This paper investigates the link between financial structure and employment growth, and the link between financial structure and inventory growth, among incorporated Canadian manufacturers from 1988 to 1997. It finds that financially vulnerable firms - smaller firms and those with higher leverage - shed nearly 10% more labour than financially healthier firms for a given drop in product demand. The influence was larger during the recession of 1990 to 1992 indicating that higher financial vulnerability, reflected in high leverage, may have worsened during that period. The influence was also greater in sectors that experienced larger cyclical fluctuations. On average, firms with high leverage also tend to cut inventories 5% more when a shock in demand occurs.

    Release date: 2004-02-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003014
    Geography: Canada

    This paper examines substantial productivity gains in Canadian manufacturing resulting from tariff reductions from the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement.

    Release date: 2003-09-08

  • Journals and periodicals: 54F0001X
    Geography: Canada

    Canada's major container ports have competed successfully against their U.S. counterparts for overseas container traffic. However, the ocean container shipping industry is undergoing changes that will impact on their relationships with ports and competition among ports for container traffic has been fierce. This paper explores how Canadian ports might fare in this increasingly competitive environment, based on their natural and man-made attributes, their competitive stance and their potential to meet the evolving ocean container industry.

    The assessment includes a review of the ocean container shipping industry, the North American container market and competing ports in the United States (U.S.). This report uses data from two sources, Statistics Canada's marine international origin/destination (O/D) database and the U.S. Department of Transport Maritime Administration's (MARAD) Annual Import Export Waterborne Databank which is based on Journal of Commerce P.I.E.R.S. data.

    The keys to the success of Canadian container ports have been a combination of natural endowments, investments in intermodal facilities and competitive pricing. These factors are likely to continue into the future, however, the competition among container ports is likely to intensify as industry consolidation continues and as publicly funded U.S. intermodal terminal and corridor projects come to fruition.

    Release date: 2003-06-09

  • Journals and periodicals: 16F0024X
    Geography: Canada

    Businesses today are involved in a variety of practices aimed at preventing or reducing environmental degradation generated from their production activity. During the 1990s, the environmental regulation context changed. Increasingly, governments have relied on voluntary initiatives undertaken by businesses to reduce pollutants and waste, as opposed to regulations. However, at the same time, the federal authorities have undertaken to revise the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), in order to increase federal power for environmental regulation but with strong emphasis put on promoting pollution prevention. Consequently, businesses today are looking at alternative ways to limit impacts from their operations on the environment.

    Environmental Management and Technologies in the Business Sector presents a profile of business demand for environmental processes and technologies, pollution prevention methods and environmental practices, such as environmental management systems and voluntary actions. What types of treatment processes are the most popular ones for reducing gas emissions, liquid, solid and hazardous waste, noise, radiation and vibration, for saving energy or for site reclamation? What is the market for environmental processes and technologies? What pollution prevention methods are used more frequently? What additional environmental practices have businesses adopted (for instance, are voluntary programs more popular than eco-labelling?)?

    This paper is based on results from the Survey of Environmental Protection Expenditures. For the first time, the survey asked detailed questions on the type of environmental process or technology used and the adoption of environmental practices. The paper is a complement to both 1996-1997 and 1998 Environmental Protection Expenditures in the Business Sector reports (Catalogue no. 16F0006XIE).

    Release date: 2002-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2002002
    Geography: Canada

    The paper examines the possible explanations for deviations from purchasing power parity (PPP) between Canada and the United States in the 1980s and 1990s and investigates both the productivity effect and the underlying PPP assumption for tradable goods.

    Release date: 2002-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002179
    Geography: Canada

    This paper studies changes in diversification of firms and plants since the early 1970s in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It finds that there has been a general increase in specialization of both firms and plants. Firms have been continuously reducing the span of industries in which they operate, particularly when the industries are unrelated. Commodity specialization has also occurred at the plant level; however, in contrast to industry specialization, the pace of commodity specialization increased emerged late in the period, around the time of implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Plant specialization increased most in those plants that moved most strongly into export markets.

    Release date: 2002-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997108
    Geography: Canada

    Trade exerts generally favourable effects on the performance of domestic manufacturing industries in the dimensions of allocative and productive efficiency. This paper reviews theory and recent evidence on these linkages and also explore a third effect-on the turbulence of competitive conditions and the turnover of business units. Calculations using primary census records for Canada over 1973-1992 indicate, with time and industry effect, controlled, market-share turnover, entry, exit, and mergers all increase with trade exposure. The effect is tied to market structures of differentiated products but broad international disturbances (North American Free Trade Area) also have significant effects. The normative significant of turbulence is mixed but has important positive components.

    Release date: 1997-10-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995087
    Geography: Canada

    Firm turnover occurs as firms gain and lose market share as part of the competitive struggle. The reallocation of market share from one group to another is associated with productivity gain as the less productive lose share and the more productive gain market share. This paper examines the extent to which productivity has been enhanced by firm turnover over the last twenty years. It focuses on the extent to which this process changed during the 1980s and thereby contributed to the slowdown in productivity growth that was experienced by the manufacturing sector.

    Release date: 1996-05-06
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004012
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada

    This activity is designed to show students some of the changes affecting Prairie agriculture over the past 100 years, and how Prairie farmers have adapted to them.

    Release date: 2004-08-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 2936
    Description: This survey was sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5001
    Description: This survey is being conducted to measure the extent to which knowledge management practices are used or will be used by Canadian businesses.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5095
    Description: The survey mandate is to collect and benchmark vital information on the business incubator sector of the Canadian economy. The information is critical in assessing the business incubator sector and in developing programs to support them.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5171
    Description: Statistics Canada has undertaken this survey to provide statistical information on the strategic decisions, innovation activities and operational tactics used by Canadian enterprises. The survey also collects information on the involvement of enterprises in global value chains.
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