Business adaptation and adjustment

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008055
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it presents the long-term trends in outsourcing and offshoring across Canadian industries. Second, it examines the relationship between offshoring and changes in trade patterns at the industry level. It focuses on two major drivers that some have suggested are behind the recent trends toward offshoring: globalization and technological changes associated with information and communications technologies. Third, the paper examines the economic impact of offshoring by investigating the relationship between the extent of offshoring and productivity growth, shifts to high value-added activities and changes in labour markets.

    Release date: 2008-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008054
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The paper investigates how Canadian manufacturing plants adjust to an increase in low-wage import competition by changing their commodity portfolios. At the commodity level, we distinguish between 'core' versus 'peripheral' and differentiated versus homogeneous commodities. We also account for cost and technological complementarities using input-output linkages between commodities produced by a plant. We document large commodity turnover within plants over the period from 1988 to 1996. The largest changes happened in multi-commodity plants and involved peripheral commodities. The commodities that were affected the most were those commodities that are potentially used as inputs in production of the 'core' commodity; homogeneous (rather than differentiated) commodities; and, commodities with relatively weak input complementarities with the core product. Plants experiencing large import competition shifted their output toward production of their core commodity and away from production of unrelated peripheral commodities.

    Release date: 2008-05-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008052
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Over the past three decades, tariff barriers have fallen significantly, leading to an increasing integration of Canadian manufactures into world markets and especially the U.S. market. Much attention has been paid to the effects of this shift at the national scale, while little attention has been given to whether these effects vary across regions. In a country that spans a continent, there is ample reason to believe that the effects of trade will vary across regions. In particular, location has a significant effect on the size of markets available to firms, and this may impact the extent to which firms reorganize their production in response to falling trade barriers. Utilizing a longitudinal microdata file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade across regions on the organization of production within plants. The study finds that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are positively associated with longer production runs, larger plants and product specialization within plants. These effects are strongest in Ontario and Quebec, provinces that are best situated with respect to the U.S. market.

    Release date: 2008-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008051
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper investigates the productivity effects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on Canadian manufacturing. It finds that Canadian tariff cuts increased exit rates among moderately productive non-exporting plants. This led to the reallocation of market share toward highly productive plants, which helps explain why aggregate productivity gains were observed when Canadian tariffs were reduced. The paper also finds that all of the within-plant productivity gains resulting from the U.S. tariff cuts involved exporters and, especially, new entrants into the export market. It demonstrates that any lack of output responses and labour-shedding as a consequence of the FTA were experienced by Canadian plants who were non-exporters, while exporters captured the gains from the FTA.

    Release date: 2008-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007044
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Utilizing a longitudinal micro data file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade on the level of industrial specialization experienced by regional manufacturing economies. Consistent with trade driven by comparative advantage, the analysis demonstrates that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are associated with greater industrial specialization. However, the analysis also shows that changes in export intensity are only weakly associated with changes in specialization. This occurs because comparative advantage tends to shift away from industries that account for a large share of regional manufacturing employment and towards industries that initially have lower shares. This ebb and flow of comparative advantage helps to explain why Canadian manufacturing regions have not become more specialized in an environment of increasing integration into the world market.

    Release date: 2007-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006038
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on plant scale, production-run length and product diversification. We first develop a model of trade in differentiated products with multi-product plants. We then present empirical evidence using a large panel of Canadian manufacturing plants and their experience with the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The model predicts that the bilateral tariff reduction reduces the product diversification of exporting plants, increases the production-run length and has an ambiguous effect on the size of those plants. It also reduces the product diversification and size of non-exporting plants, and has no effect on the production-run length of those plants. The empirical evidence on non-exporting plants provides broad support for the model. The evidence on exporting plants shows that exporters reduce product diversification, and increase production-run length and plant size, but those changes do not appear to be related to tariff cuts. Once in the export markets, plants respond to forces other than tariff cuts. Further tariff cuts have less effect on those plants.

    Release date: 2006-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006013
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the incidence of foreign control in Canadian non-financial industries. It focuses on changes in the share of assets and revenues under foreign control over a long-run period during which Canada's regulatory climate shifted from being more restrictive to more liberal in its treatment of inward foreign direct investment. These regulatory changes coincided with a retrenchment and then a resurgence in the activities of foreign multinationals in Canadian industry. We report aggregate results for non-financial industries, along with specific tabulations for the energy sector. More detailed industry tabulations are presented for the 2000-2003 period.

    Release date: 2006-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060039136
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Foreign control in our economy has fallen and rebounded largely as a result of regulatory changes, especially in energy.

    Release date: 2006-03-16

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005008
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper outlines broad changes in foreign ownership in Canada over the last forty years. It makes use of several different but complementary data sources that are produced by Statistics Canada to analyze the importance of foreign ownership in Canada. Over the last four decades, foreign multinationals that are operating in Canada have experienced first, a retrenchment and then, a resurgence in their activities. This retrenchment occurred during the period when foreign investment was tightly regulated and could be found across most industries, but was particularly evident in the energy and mining sector. The resurgence that has occurred subsequent to the introduction of a more liberal regulatory regime was also relatively widespread, though there are several sectors like the science-based and energy industries where this has not occurred.

    Release date: 2005-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005256
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We investigate whether trade liberalization affects profitability and financial leverage, using Canadian data from the period following implementation of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. We find that falling domestic tariffs are associated with declining profits and increasing leverage for import-competing firms, while falling foreign tariffs are associated with increasing profits and decreasing leverage for firms in export-oriented industries. This pattern is consistent with the "pecking order" theory of capital structure.

    Release date: 2005-06-22
Data (17)

Data (17) (0 to 10 of 17 results)

Analysis (40)

Analysis (40) (0 to 10 of 40 results)

  • Stats in brief: 45-28-0001202000100064
    Description:

    The COVID-19 pandemic triggered decisions at all levels of government to try and minimize its spread, including shutting down non-essential retail establishments. This led to an abrupt shift in the Canadian retail environment, to which many industries had to adapt. This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on retail e-commerce as a method of doing business during the first months of the pandemic.

    Release date: 2020-07-24

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202020624983
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-07-24

  • Stats in brief: 11-627-M2020052
    Description:

    This infographic presents the impact of COVID-19 on businesses in Canada and their recovery needs. Specifically, the infographic presents information on teleworking (before, during and after the pandemic), personal protective measures businesses plan to implement, personal protective equipment and supply needs, and actions businesses have taken to help themselves through the pandemic. Results are from the Canadian Survey on Business Conditions.

    Release date: 2020-07-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202019623725
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-07-14

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202004322583
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020005
    Description:

    Understanding intangible investments is essential for providing accurate measures of gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), gross domestic product (GDP) and productivity growth, and for understanding the innovation system. Statistical agencies need measures of intangible investment to produce economic statistics on aggregate activity that accurately measure concepts such as GDP, GFCF or savings. The levels of GDP, GFCF and savings will be underestimated to the extent that expenditures are incorrectly classified as intermediate inputs that are fully consumed during the period being measured—and not as investments that are not fully consumed during the period when the expenditures are incurred. Estimates for GDP and productivity growth rates may be similarly underestimated. This paper updates and expands upon the intangible capital estimates presented by Baldwin et al. (2009), who extended already measured intangibles (i.e., research and development [R&D], software, mineral exploration) to include additional asset classes consistent with international research on intangible capital measurement (see Corrado, Hulten and Sichel 2009).

    Release date: 2020-02-12

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X202001721943
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020001
    Description:

    Multifactor productivity (MFP) declined in Canada from 2000 to 2009 and then recovered after. The movements in productivity since 2000 have attracted great attention from researchers and policy makers because productivity is important both for economic growth and for improvements in living standards. This paper applies the stochastic frontier framework to decompose each firm’s MFP into two parts: its technological frontier and its technical efficiency. Change in the aggregate technological frontier refers to improvements in the productivity potential of an economy, i.e., the maximum productivity of an economy if all firms are fully efficient. Aggregate technical efficiency reflects the economy’s capacity to achieve that potential. The results of this decomposition can show whether the movements in productivity after 2000 in Canada were mainly the result of changes in the technological frontier and productivity potential or of changes in the technical efficiency.

    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2020002
    Description:

    Labour productivity growth in the business sector in Canada started to decline in 2000, from 2.3% per year in the period from 1991 to 2000 to 1.0% per year in the period from 2000 to 2015. This paper examines how innovation, innovation diffusion across firms, and business dynamism affected the productivity slowdown.

    Release date: 2020-01-17

  • Stats in brief: 11-001-X20121875720
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-07-05
Reference (5)

Reference (5) ((5 results))

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004012
    Geography: Geographical region of Canada
    Description:

    This activity is designed to show students some of the changes affecting Prairie agriculture over the past 100 years, and how Prairie farmers have adapted to them.

    Release date: 2004-08-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 2936
    Description: This survey was sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5001
    Description: This survey is being conducted to measure the extent to which knowledge management practices are used or will be used by Canadian businesses.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5095
    Description: The survey mandate is to collect and benchmark vital information on the business incubator sector of the Canadian economy. The information is critical in assessing the business incubator sector and in developing programs to support them.

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5171
    Description: Statistics Canada has undertaken this survey to provide statistical information on the strategic decisions, innovation activities and operational tactics used by Canadian enterprises. The survey also collects information on the involvement of enterprises in global value chains.
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