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  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010066
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Household Spending and from its predecessor, the Survey of Family Expenditures, this paper investigates the relative incomes of retirement-age and working-age Canadians from 1969 to 2006, taking into account both explicit household income and the implicit income generated by owner-occupied housing. Over this 37-year period, the explicit incomes of retirement-age households increased at a more rapid pace than those of working-age households. Implicit income from owner-occupied housing also increased rapidly during this time, matching the rate at which the explicit income of retirement-age households increased. On average, this implicit source of earnings raised the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over) by 16%. Taking both forms of income into account, the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over), relative to the incomes of working-age households (aged 40 to 49), increased from 45% in 1969 to 59% in 2006. During this period, Canadians invested in housing assets that provided additional income upon retirement.

    Release date: 2010-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010811331
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the extent to which family income of individuals in their mid-fifties is 'replaced' by other sources of income during the retirement years. It does so by tracking various cohorts of tax filers as they age from their mid-fifties to their late seventies and over. Earlier work examined this question for the 50% of the population with strong labour market attachment during their mid-fifties. This paper extends that work to include 80% to 85% of the population.

    Release date: 2010-08-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010328
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the extent to which family income during working years is replaced during the retirement years. It does so by tracking cohorts as they age from their mid-50s to their late 70s, using a taxation-based longitudinal data source that covers 26 years from 1982 to 2007. Earlier work by the same authors examined this question with respect to the 50% of the population with strong labour force attachment during their mid-50s. This paper extends that work to include almost all Canadians (80% to 85% of the population). The adult-equivalent-adjusted family income available to the median Canadian during his or her late 70s is about 80% of that observed when the same person was in his or her mid-50s (a replacement rate of 0.8). Replacement rates in retirement are negatively correlated with income earned around age 55. Median replacement rates are 1.1 among individuals in the bottom income quintile, 0.75 in the middle quintile, and 0.7 in the top quintile. In retirement, public pensions and other transfers more than replace earnings and other income of bottom quintile individuals. However, some individuals have very low replacement rates. For example, 20% of individuals in the middle income quintile had replacement rates below 0.6. More recent cohorts had higher family incomes in retirement than did earlier cohorts as a result of higher earnings and private-pension income.

    Release date: 2010-07-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010064
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper estimates the implicit income generated by the home equity of working-age and retirement-age households. In so doing, it expands our understanding of Canadians' preparation for retirement by taking into account the services that homeowners realize as a result of having invested in their homes. On the basis of both the 2006 Survey of Household Spending and the 2006 Census of Population, we find that housing services make an important contribution to household income. When estimates of the services provided by the equity invested in housing are added to traditional estimates of income, the income of retirement-age households is increased by 9% to 12% for those in the 60-to-69 age class and by 12% to 15% for those in the 70-plus age class. In turn, this additional income reduces the difference in income between working-age and retirement-age households that own their own homes. According to the Survey of Household Spending, net incomes decline by about 45% between the peak household earning years and the 70-plus retirement-age class. This figure is reduced to 42% when the contribution of housing services is taken into account. The Census provides a similar picture: the gap in incomes is 38% when net income alone is considered and 35% when one accounts for housing services.

    Release date: 2010-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010326
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In spite of the importance of registered pension plans (RPPs) in discussions of Canada's retirement income system, very few Canadian studies have examined the financial outcomes experienced by RPP members and RPP non-members. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD), this paper compares the distributions of earnings replacement rates achieved by retired men who were or were not members of a registered pension plan (RPP) in 1991 and/or 1992. The distributions of earnings replacement rates of men who were not RPP members are far more dispersed than those of men who were RPP members. And while the average earnings replacement rates of the two groups are generally comparable, the median earnings replacement rates of RPP non-members are lower than those of RPP members as a result of asymmetry in the distributions.

    Release date: 2010-07-19
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  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010066
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Household Spending and from its predecessor, the Survey of Family Expenditures, this paper investigates the relative incomes of retirement-age and working-age Canadians from 1969 to 2006, taking into account both explicit household income and the implicit income generated by owner-occupied housing. Over this 37-year period, the explicit incomes of retirement-age households increased at a more rapid pace than those of working-age households. Implicit income from owner-occupied housing also increased rapidly during this time, matching the rate at which the explicit income of retirement-age households increased. On average, this implicit source of earnings raised the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over) by 16%. Taking both forms of income into account, the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over), relative to the incomes of working-age households (aged 40 to 49), increased from 45% in 1969 to 59% in 2006. During this period, Canadians invested in housing assets that provided additional income upon retirement.

    Release date: 2010-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010811331
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the extent to which family income of individuals in their mid-fifties is 'replaced' by other sources of income during the retirement years. It does so by tracking various cohorts of tax filers as they age from their mid-fifties to their late seventies and over. Earlier work examined this question for the 50% of the population with strong labour market attachment during their mid-fifties. This paper extends that work to include 80% to 85% of the population.

    Release date: 2010-08-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010328
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the extent to which family income during working years is replaced during the retirement years. It does so by tracking cohorts as they age from their mid-50s to their late 70s, using a taxation-based longitudinal data source that covers 26 years from 1982 to 2007. Earlier work by the same authors examined this question with respect to the 50% of the population with strong labour force attachment during their mid-50s. This paper extends that work to include almost all Canadians (80% to 85% of the population). The adult-equivalent-adjusted family income available to the median Canadian during his or her late 70s is about 80% of that observed when the same person was in his or her mid-50s (a replacement rate of 0.8). Replacement rates in retirement are negatively correlated with income earned around age 55. Median replacement rates are 1.1 among individuals in the bottom income quintile, 0.75 in the middle quintile, and 0.7 in the top quintile. In retirement, public pensions and other transfers more than replace earnings and other income of bottom quintile individuals. However, some individuals have very low replacement rates. For example, 20% of individuals in the middle income quintile had replacement rates below 0.6. More recent cohorts had higher family incomes in retirement than did earlier cohorts as a result of higher earnings and private-pension income.

    Release date: 2010-07-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010064
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper estimates the implicit income generated by the home equity of working-age and retirement-age households. In so doing, it expands our understanding of Canadians' preparation for retirement by taking into account the services that homeowners realize as a result of having invested in their homes. On the basis of both the 2006 Survey of Household Spending and the 2006 Census of Population, we find that housing services make an important contribution to household income. When estimates of the services provided by the equity invested in housing are added to traditional estimates of income, the income of retirement-age households is increased by 9% to 12% for those in the 60-to-69 age class and by 12% to 15% for those in the 70-plus age class. In turn, this additional income reduces the difference in income between working-age and retirement-age households that own their own homes. According to the Survey of Household Spending, net incomes decline by about 45% between the peak household earning years and the 70-plus retirement-age class. This figure is reduced to 42% when the contribution of housing services is taken into account. The Census provides a similar picture: the gap in incomes is 38% when net income alone is considered and 35% when one accounts for housing services.

    Release date: 2010-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2010326
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In spite of the importance of registered pension plans (RPPs) in discussions of Canada's retirement income system, very few Canadian studies have examined the financial outcomes experienced by RPP members and RPP non-members. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD), this paper compares the distributions of earnings replacement rates achieved by retired men who were or were not members of a registered pension plan (RPP) in 1991 and/or 1992. The distributions of earnings replacement rates of men who were not RPP members are far more dispersed than those of men who were RPP members. And while the average earnings replacement rates of the two groups are generally comparable, the median earnings replacement rates of RPP non-members are lower than those of RPP members as a result of asymmetry in the distributions.

    Release date: 2010-07-19
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