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    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008319
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      The past 25 years has seen a more or less continuous deterioration in the economic outcomes for immigrants entering Canada. However, economic outcomes for second-generation Canadians (children of immigrants) are more positive, and in spite of the economic difficulties, after four years in Canada most immigrants entering in 2000 remained positive regarding their immigration decision, citing the freedom, safety, rights, security and prospects for the future as the aspects they appreciate most in Canada. This paper reviews what we know about the economic deterioration, and the possible reasons behind it, in particular based on the research conducted at Statistics Canada. It also outlines the data development undertaken by Statistics Canada and its policy department partners to support increased research of this topic. From 2002 to 2008, Statistics Canada released 64 research articles on the above topics, and others related to immigration. The research suggests that through the 1980s and 1990s three factors were associated with the deterioration in economic outcomes: (1) the changing mix of source regions and related issues such as language and school quality, (2) declining returns to foreign experience, and (3) the deterioration in economic outcomes for all new labour market entrants, of which immigrants are a special case. After 2000, the reasons appear to be different, and are associated more with the dramatic increase in the number of engineers and information technology (IT) workers entering Canada, and the IT economic downturn. Data also suggest that, by and large, Canadians continue to see immigration as an important part of the development of Canada and that they continue to support it. The paper reviews Statistics Canada research that indicates that economic outcomes for most second-generation Canadians remain very positive. Finally, there is a discussion of the interaction between immigration and social cohesion in Canada, and possible reasons as to why we have not seen the discontent with immigration policy in Canada that has been observed in some European countries.

      Release date: 2008-12-16

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008316
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      We analyse the intergenerational education mobility of Canadian men and women born to immigrants. A detailed portrait of Canadians is offered, as are estimates of the degree of intergenerational mobility among the children of immigrants. Persistence in the years of schooling across the generations is rather weak between immigrants and their Canadian-born children, and one third as strong as for the general population. Parental earnings are not correlated with years of schooling for second-generation children and, if anything, are negatively correlated. Finally, we find that the intergenerational transmission of education has not changed across the birth cohorts of the post-war period.

      Release date: 2008-10-02

    • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008308
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      Using the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this article examines the group differences by national origin in university educational attainment among the children of immigrants in Canada. We found that children of immigrant parents in most source region groups achieve higher university completion rates than children of Canadian-born parents, partly due to higher education levels of their parents. Children of Chinese and Indian immigrants particularly attain higher academic achievements than children of Canadian-born parents. Parental education was also important in explaining the relatively low university completion rates among the second-generation Portuguese.

      Release date: 2008-09-22
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    • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 97-557-P2006003
      Geography: Canada
      Description:

      This guide focuses on the following demographic variables: Place of birth, Generation status, Citizenship and Immigration.

      Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

      Release date: 2008-01-09
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