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  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2006012
    Description:

    This document presents the geographical distribution of federal government expenditures and staff for the fiscal year 2004/2005.

    Release date: 2006-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029546
    Description:

    We discuss methods for the analysis of case-control studies in which the controls are drawn using a complex sample survey. The most straightforward method is the standard survey approach based on weighted versions of population estimating equations. We also look at more efficient methods and compare their robustness to model mis-specification in simple cases. Case-control family studies, where the within-cluster structure is of interest in its own right, are also discussed briefly.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029547
    Description:

    Calibration weighting can be used to adjust for unit nonresponse and/or coverage errors under appropriate quasi-randomization models. Alternative calibration adjustments that are asymptotically identical in a purely sampling context can diverge when used in this manner. Introducing instrumental variables into calibration weighting makes it possible for nonresponse (say) to be a function of a set of characteristics other than those in the calibration vector. When the calibration adjustment has a nonlinear form, a variant of the jackknife can remove the need for iteration in variance estimation.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029548
    Description:

    The theory of multiple imputation for missing data requires that imputations be made conditional on the sampling design. However, most standard software packages for performing model-based multiple imputation assume simple random samples, leading many practitioners not to account for complex sample design features, such as stratification and clustering, in their imputations. Theory predicts that analyses of such multiply-imputed data sets can yield biased estimates from the design-based perspective. In this article, we illustrate through simulation that (i) the bias can be severe when the design features are related to the survey variables of interest, and (ii) the bias can be reduced by controlling for the design features in the imputation models. The simulations also illustrate that conditioning on irrelevant design features in the imputation models can yield conservative inferences, provided that the models include other relevant predictors. These results suggest a prescription for imputers: the safest course of action is to include design variables in the specification of imputation models. Using real data, we demonstrate a simple approach for incorporating complex design features that can be used with some of the standard software packages for creating multiple imputations.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029549
    Description:

    In this article, we propose a Bernoulli-type bootstrap method that can easily handle multi-stage stratified designs where sampling fractions are large, provided simple random sampling without replacement is used at each stage. The method provides a set of replicate weights which yield consistent variance estimates for both smooth and non-smooth estimators. The method's strength is in its simplicity. It can easily be extended to any number of stages without much complication. The main idea is to either keep or replace a sampling unit at each stage with preassigned probabilities, to construct the bootstrap sample. A limited simulation study is presented to evaluate performance and, as an illustration, we apply the method to the 1997 Japanese National Survey of Prices.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029550
    Description:

    In this paper, the geometric, optimization-based, and Lavallée and Hidiroglou (LH) approaches to stratification are compared. The geometric stratification method is an approximation, whereas the other two approaches, which employ numerical methods to perform stratification, may be seen as optimal stratification methods. The algorithm of the geometric stratification is very simple compared to the two other approaches, but it does not take into account the construction of a take-all stratum, which is usually constructed when a positively skewed population is stratified. In the optimization-based stratification, one may consider any form of optimization function and its constraints. In a comparative numerical study based on five positively skewed artificial populations, the optimization approach was more efficient in each of the cases studied compared to the geometric stratification. In addition, the geometric and optimization approaches are compared with the LH algorithm. In this comparison, the geometric stratification approach was found to be less efficient than the LH algorithm, whereas efficiency of the optimization approach was similar to the efficiency of the LH algorithm. Nevertheless, strata boundaries evaluated via the geometric stratification may be seen as efficient starting points for the optimization approach.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029551
    Description:

    To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units. It can then be considered to select a sample from the available frame in order to produce an estimate for the desired target population by using the links existing between the two. This can be designated by Indirect Sampling.

    Estimation for the target population surveyed by Indirect Sampling can constitute a big challenge, in particular if the links between the units of the two are not one-to-one. The problem comes especially from the difficulty to associate a selection probability, or an estimation weight, to the surveyed units of the target population. In order to solve this type of estimation problem, the Generalized Weight Share Method (GWSM) has been developed by Lavallée (1995) and Lavallée (2002). The GWSM provides an estimation weight for every surveyed unit of the target population.

    This paper first describes Indirect Sampling, which constitutes the foundations of the GWSM. Second, an overview of the GWSM is given where we formulate the GWSM in a theoretical framework using matrix notation. Third, we present some properties of the GWSM such as unbiasedness and transitivity. Fourth, we consider the special case where the links between the two populations are expressed by indicator variables. Fifth, some special typical linkages are studied to assess their impact on the GWSM. Finally, we consider the problem of optimality. We obtain optimal weights in a weak sense (for specific values of the variable of interest), and conditions for which these weights are also optimal in a strong sense and independent of the variable of interest.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029552
    Description:

    A survey of tourist visits originating intra and extra-region in Brittany was needed. For concrete material reasons, "border surveys" could no longer be used. The major problem is the lack of a sampling frame that allows for direct contact with tourists. This problem was addressed by applying the indirect sampling method, the weighting for which is obtained using the generalized weight share method developed recently by Lavallée (1995), Lavallée (2002), Deville (1999) and also presented recently in Lavallée and Caron (2001). This article shows how to adapt the method to the survey. A number of extensions are required. One of the extensions, designed to estimate the total of a population from which a Bernouilli sample has been taken, will be developed.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029553
    Description:

    Félix-Medina and Thompson (2004) proposed a variant of Link-tracing sampling in which it is assumed that a portion of the population, not necessarily the major portion, is covered by a frame of disjoint sites where members of the population can be found with high probabilities. A sample of sites is selected and the people in each of the selected sites are asked to nominate other members of the population. They proposed maximum likelihood estimators of the population sizes which perform acceptably provided that for each site the probability that a member is nominated by that site, called the nomination probability, is not small. In this research we consider Félix-Medina and Thompson's variant and propose three sets of estimators of the population sizes derived under the Bayesian approach. Two of the sets of estimators were obtained using improper prior distributions of the population sizes, and the other using Poisson prior distributions. However, we use the Bayesian approach only to assist us in the construction of estimators, while inferences about the population sizes are made under the frequentist approach. We propose two types of partly design-based variance estimators and confidence intervals. One of them is obtained using a bootstrap and the other using the delta method along with the assumption of asymptotic normality. The results of a simulation study indicate that (i) when the nomination probabilities are not small each of the proposed sets of estimators performs well and very similarly to maximum likelihood estimators; (ii) when the nomination probabilities are small the set of estimators derived using Poisson prior distributions still performs acceptably and does not have the problems of bias that maximum likelihood estimators have, and (iii) the previous results do not depend on the size of the fraction of the population covered by the frame.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029554
    Description:

    Survey sampling to estimate a Consumer Price Index (CPI) is quite complicated, generally requiring a combination of data from at least two surveys: one giving prices, one giving expenditure weights. Fundamentally different approaches to the sampling process - probability sampling and purposive sampling - have each been strongly advocated and are used by different countries in the collection of price data. By constructing a small "world" of purchases and prices from scanner data on cereal and then simulating various sampling and estimation techniques, we compare the results of two design and estimation approaches: the probability approach of the United States and the purposive approach of the United Kingdom. For the same amount of information collected, but given the use of different estimators, the United Kingdom's methods appear to offer better overall accuracy in targeting a population superlative consumer price index.

    Release date: 2006-12-21
Data (16)

Data (16) (0 to 10 of 16 results)

  • Table: 50-002-X20060039565
    Description:

    To provide users with a complete picture of the activities associated with the Couriers and Local Messengers industry in Canada.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Table: 81-595-M2006048
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This bulletin presents the final set of tables which contain salary information for the year 2004-2005. This information is collected annually under the University and College Academic Staff System and has a reference date of October 1st. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff are not included.

    Release date: 2006-12-05

  • Table: 56-001-X20060049524
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this bulletin are for the year ending on August 31 and for the period from 2002 to 2005. The following text contains references to previous periods when it is useful to set the industry's performance in a historical context.

    Release date: 2006-11-20

  • Table: 50-002-X20060029517
    Description:

    To provide users with a complete picture of the financial and operational activities associated with Small For-hire Motor Carriers of Freight and Owner Operators in Canada.

    Release date: 2006-10-30

  • Table: 50-002-X20060019504
    Description:

    Although revenues were higher in 2004 compared to 2003, the Canadian bus and urban transit industries had a difficult year in 2004. Their net income dropped nearly 17% as expenses rose faster than revenues.

    Release date: 2006-10-04

  • 6. The Dairy Review Archived
    Table: 23-001-X
    Description:

    This publication is a statistical summary of the dairy situation in Canada and the provinces, including farm sales of milk for fluid and manufacturing purposes; cash receipts from farm sales; and production and stocks of creamery butter, cheddar cheese and other dairy products and by-products.

    Release date: 2006-08-29

  • Table: 56-001-X20060039299
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this Bulletin are for the fiscal year ending August 31 and cover the period from 2002 to 2005. The text includes references to earlier periods when it is useful to put the industry's recent performance in a historical context.

    Release date: 2006-08-22

  • Table: 81-595-M2006044
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This report provides trends on public school enrolments, educators and expenditures. It uses figures provided by provincial and territorial departments of education on public elementary and secondary schools.

    Release date: 2006-08-03

  • Table: 12F0080X
    Description:

    This publication presents a series of tabulations produced from the General Social Survey on time use of Canadians. It includes information on average amounts of time spent on various activities by sex, by age, by selected role groups.

    Release date: 2006-07-12

  • Table: 81-595-M2006046
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This bulletin contains salary information of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities for the academic year 2005/2006. Information is provided for institutions that have determined salaries for the period and have responded to the survey by June 2006. This information is collected annually under the University and College Academic Staff Survey and has a reference date of October 1st. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff (and who responded to the survey by June 2006) are not included in this bulletin. This information is available by special request to Client Services, Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics (see Contact information, below).

    Release date: 2006-07-12
Analysis (289)

Analysis (289) (0 to 10 of 289 results)

  • Articles and reports: 88F0006X2006012
    Description:

    This document presents the geographical distribution of federal government expenditures and staff for the fiscal year 2004/2005.

    Release date: 2006-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029546
    Description:

    We discuss methods for the analysis of case-control studies in which the controls are drawn using a complex sample survey. The most straightforward method is the standard survey approach based on weighted versions of population estimating equations. We also look at more efficient methods and compare their robustness to model mis-specification in simple cases. Case-control family studies, where the within-cluster structure is of interest in its own right, are also discussed briefly.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029547
    Description:

    Calibration weighting can be used to adjust for unit nonresponse and/or coverage errors under appropriate quasi-randomization models. Alternative calibration adjustments that are asymptotically identical in a purely sampling context can diverge when used in this manner. Introducing instrumental variables into calibration weighting makes it possible for nonresponse (say) to be a function of a set of characteristics other than those in the calibration vector. When the calibration adjustment has a nonlinear form, a variant of the jackknife can remove the need for iteration in variance estimation.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029548
    Description:

    The theory of multiple imputation for missing data requires that imputations be made conditional on the sampling design. However, most standard software packages for performing model-based multiple imputation assume simple random samples, leading many practitioners not to account for complex sample design features, such as stratification and clustering, in their imputations. Theory predicts that analyses of such multiply-imputed data sets can yield biased estimates from the design-based perspective. In this article, we illustrate through simulation that (i) the bias can be severe when the design features are related to the survey variables of interest, and (ii) the bias can be reduced by controlling for the design features in the imputation models. The simulations also illustrate that conditioning on irrelevant design features in the imputation models can yield conservative inferences, provided that the models include other relevant predictors. These results suggest a prescription for imputers: the safest course of action is to include design variables in the specification of imputation models. Using real data, we demonstrate a simple approach for incorporating complex design features that can be used with some of the standard software packages for creating multiple imputations.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029549
    Description:

    In this article, we propose a Bernoulli-type bootstrap method that can easily handle multi-stage stratified designs where sampling fractions are large, provided simple random sampling without replacement is used at each stage. The method provides a set of replicate weights which yield consistent variance estimates for both smooth and non-smooth estimators. The method's strength is in its simplicity. It can easily be extended to any number of stages without much complication. The main idea is to either keep or replace a sampling unit at each stage with preassigned probabilities, to construct the bootstrap sample. A limited simulation study is presented to evaluate performance and, as an illustration, we apply the method to the 1997 Japanese National Survey of Prices.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029550
    Description:

    In this paper, the geometric, optimization-based, and Lavallée and Hidiroglou (LH) approaches to stratification are compared. The geometric stratification method is an approximation, whereas the other two approaches, which employ numerical methods to perform stratification, may be seen as optimal stratification methods. The algorithm of the geometric stratification is very simple compared to the two other approaches, but it does not take into account the construction of a take-all stratum, which is usually constructed when a positively skewed population is stratified. In the optimization-based stratification, one may consider any form of optimization function and its constraints. In a comparative numerical study based on five positively skewed artificial populations, the optimization approach was more efficient in each of the cases studied compared to the geometric stratification. In addition, the geometric and optimization approaches are compared with the LH algorithm. In this comparison, the geometric stratification approach was found to be less efficient than the LH algorithm, whereas efficiency of the optimization approach was similar to the efficiency of the LH algorithm. Nevertheless, strata boundaries evaluated via the geometric stratification may be seen as efficient starting points for the optimization approach.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029551
    Description:

    To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units. It can then be considered to select a sample from the available frame in order to produce an estimate for the desired target population by using the links existing between the two. This can be designated by Indirect Sampling.

    Estimation for the target population surveyed by Indirect Sampling can constitute a big challenge, in particular if the links between the units of the two are not one-to-one. The problem comes especially from the difficulty to associate a selection probability, or an estimation weight, to the surveyed units of the target population. In order to solve this type of estimation problem, the Generalized Weight Share Method (GWSM) has been developed by Lavallée (1995) and Lavallée (2002). The GWSM provides an estimation weight for every surveyed unit of the target population.

    This paper first describes Indirect Sampling, which constitutes the foundations of the GWSM. Second, an overview of the GWSM is given where we formulate the GWSM in a theoretical framework using matrix notation. Third, we present some properties of the GWSM such as unbiasedness and transitivity. Fourth, we consider the special case where the links between the two populations are expressed by indicator variables. Fifth, some special typical linkages are studied to assess their impact on the GWSM. Finally, we consider the problem of optimality. We obtain optimal weights in a weak sense (for specific values of the variable of interest), and conditions for which these weights are also optimal in a strong sense and independent of the variable of interest.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029552
    Description:

    A survey of tourist visits originating intra and extra-region in Brittany was needed. For concrete material reasons, "border surveys" could no longer be used. The major problem is the lack of a sampling frame that allows for direct contact with tourists. This problem was addressed by applying the indirect sampling method, the weighting for which is obtained using the generalized weight share method developed recently by Lavallée (1995), Lavallée (2002), Deville (1999) and also presented recently in Lavallée and Caron (2001). This article shows how to adapt the method to the survey. A number of extensions are required. One of the extensions, designed to estimate the total of a population from which a Bernouilli sample has been taken, will be developed.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029553
    Description:

    Félix-Medina and Thompson (2004) proposed a variant of Link-tracing sampling in which it is assumed that a portion of the population, not necessarily the major portion, is covered by a frame of disjoint sites where members of the population can be found with high probabilities. A sample of sites is selected and the people in each of the selected sites are asked to nominate other members of the population. They proposed maximum likelihood estimators of the population sizes which perform acceptably provided that for each site the probability that a member is nominated by that site, called the nomination probability, is not small. In this research we consider Félix-Medina and Thompson's variant and propose three sets of estimators of the population sizes derived under the Bayesian approach. Two of the sets of estimators were obtained using improper prior distributions of the population sizes, and the other using Poisson prior distributions. However, we use the Bayesian approach only to assist us in the construction of estimators, while inferences about the population sizes are made under the frequentist approach. We propose two types of partly design-based variance estimators and confidence intervals. One of them is obtained using a bootstrap and the other using the delta method along with the assumption of asymptotic normality. The results of a simulation study indicate that (i) when the nomination probabilities are not small each of the proposed sets of estimators performs well and very similarly to maximum likelihood estimators; (ii) when the nomination probabilities are small the set of estimators derived using Poisson prior distributions still performs acceptably and does not have the problems of bias that maximum likelihood estimators have, and (iii) the previous results do not depend on the size of the fraction of the population covered by the frame.

    Release date: 2006-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20060029554
    Description:

    Survey sampling to estimate a Consumer Price Index (CPI) is quite complicated, generally requiring a combination of data from at least two surveys: one giving prices, one giving expenditure weights. Fundamentally different approaches to the sampling process - probability sampling and purposive sampling - have each been strongly advocated and are used by different countries in the collection of price data. By constructing a small "world" of purchases and prices from scanner data on cereal and then simulating various sampling and estimation techniques, we compare the results of two design and estimation approaches: the probability approach of the United States and the purposive approach of the United Kingdom. For the same amount of information collected, but given the use of different estimators, the United Kingdom's methods appear to offer better overall accuracy in targeting a population superlative consumer price index.

    Release date: 2006-12-21
Reference (28)

Reference (28) (0 to 10 of 28 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2006001
    Geography: Province or territory
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2006-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 68-514-X
    Description:

    Statistics Canada's approach to gathering and disseminating economic data has developed over several decades into a highly integrated system for collection and estimation that feeds the framework of the Canadian System of National Accounts.

    The key to this approach was creation of the Unified Enterprise Survey, the goal of which was to improve the consistency, coherence, breadth and depth of business survey data.

    The UES did so by bringing many of Statistics Canada's individual annual business surveys under a common framework. This framework included a single survey frame, a sample design framework, conceptual harmonization of survey content, means of using relevant administrative data, common data collection, processing and analysis tools, and a common data warehouse.

    Release date: 2006-11-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89-622-X2006003
    Description:

    The General Social Survey (GSS) is an annual survey that monitors changes and emerging trends in Canadian Society. For the fourth time in Canada, the GSS has collected national level time use data. The GSS is funded through a government initiative aimed to fill data gaps for policy research. In this paper we present the policy framework that supports the survey, and discuss the impact of that framework on the content decisions that GSS has made. Following a brief review of the major findings from the first three cycles of time use data we discuss the lessons learned and best practices in the development, collection and processing of these data in Canada. Finally, we compare the methods and content of the Canadian time use survey with the US survey.

    Release date: 2006-11-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89-622-X
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This series presents detailed analyses based on the 2005 General Social Survey on Time Use data. Each report covers a specific subject developed from detailed information on the daily activities of Canadians. Links to other products related to time use are also available.

    Release date: 2006-11-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2006004
    Description:

    This paper provides a brief description of the methodology currently used to produce the annual volume of hours worked consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). These data are used for labour input in the annual and quarterly measures of labour productivity, as well as in the annual measures of multifactor productivity. For this purpose, hours worked are broken down by educational level and age group, so that changes in the composition of the labour force can be taken into account. They are also used to calculate hourly compensation and the unit labour cost and for simulations of the SNA Input-Output Model; as such, they are integrated as labour force inputs into most SNA satellite accounts (i.e., environment, tourism).

    Release date: 2006-10-27

  • Geographic files and documentation: 12-571-P
    Description:

    The Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) is a system of names and codes representing areas of Canada. It consists of a three-tiered hierarchy - province or territory, census division, and census subdivision. This relationship is reflected in the seven-digit code. The SGC is used to identify information for particular geographical areas and to tabulate statistics. This volume is designed as a reference and coding manual. It contains tables of SGC units with their names and codes, as well as tables of metropolitan areas. This preliminary version of Volume I will be followed in January 2007 by the final version.

    Release date: 2006-10-18

  • Geographic files and documentation: 92-149-G
    Description:

    The National, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions Reference Maps reference guide is available for the following products: Census Division and Census Subdivision Reference Maps, by Province or Territory, 2006 Census and four national maps. The national maps of Canada at a 1:7,500,000 scale showing census divisions, point locations of census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, statistical area classification and economic regions and census divisions. The Reference Guide describes the content and applications of these products, as well as data quality, and other information.

    Release date: 2006-10-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 92-565-X
    Description:

    The Preview of Products and Services offers a complete overview of the proposed products and services that will be released based on the 2006 Census of Population and 2006 Census of Agriculture results. Information (where applicable) will include major characteristics and content, "What's new?" in comparison to 2001, levels of geography, availability/delivery methods, release timeframe and pricing.

    The preview is now exclusively an Internet product for 2006 and is no longer available in a formalized print format (i.e. newsletter publication); however, "print-friendly" format is available via the Internet. This product will be updated periodically as details regarding products and services become finalized.

    Release date: 2006-10-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 15-206-X2006003
    Description:

    This paper examines the revision cycle for labour productivity estimates over the period 2001 to 2004.

    Release date: 2006-10-11

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 82-225-X20060099202
    Description:

    The User Guide to Record Linkage Feedback Reports C1 and C2 is intended for the users of the reports. The reports were developed to facilitate the exchange of information and decisions between the Canadian Cancer Registry and the Provincial and Territorial Cancer Registries.

    Release date: 2006-07-07
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