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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010313246
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    All provinces and territories set minimum wages in their employment standards legislation. This update uses the Labour Force Survey to examine the characteristics of those who work at or below the minimum wage for experienced adults in each jurisdiction. The incidence of working for minimum wage has increased each year since 2006 but remains concentrated among youth, particularly young women.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000115608
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study looks at those who voluntarily work part time, as well as their reasons for doing so, their levels of work-related stress, and their job characteristics.

    Release date: 2000-11-24

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20000015302
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines changes in household spending on health care between 1978 and 1998. It also provides a detailed look at household spending on health care in 1998.

    Release date: 2000-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035371
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Changing the focus - from the individual to the family, from one week to one year - can dramatically alter perceptions of unemployment. This article compares alternative measures with the official rate over the last two decades.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035374
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article examines the issue of non-union members who are covered by collective agreements, comparing the Canadian picture in the late 1990s with that of the United States. An accompanying update, which covers the first half of 2000, provides Perspectives annual socio-demograhic and economic profile of union members.

    Release date: 2000-09-06
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Analysis (29)

Analysis (29) (20 to 30 of 29 results)

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19990034936
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas had generally lower income inequality and lower mortality than their US counterparts.

    Within Canada there was no association between income inequality and mortality at either the provincial or metropolitan area levels. However, this relationship is strong in the United States.

    This Canada-United States comparison suggests that the Canadian urban environment may be more beneficial to health than its US counterpart.

    Release date: 2000-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000144
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    In this paper, we revisit trends in low-income among Canadian children by taking advantage of recent developments in the measurement of low-income intensity. We focus in particular on the Sen-Shorrocks-Thon (SST) index and its elaboration by Osberg and Xu. Low-income intensity declined in the 1980s but rose in the 1990s. Declining earnings put upward pressure on low-income levels over much of the period. Higher transfers more than offset this pressure in the 1980s and continued to absorb a substantial share of the increase through 1993. In contrast, the rise in low-income intensity after 1993 reflected reductions in UI and social assistance benefits that were not offset by increased employment earnings, at least to 1996 the latest year used in this paper.

    A major aim of the paper is methodological. We contrast results using the SST index with results produced by the more familiar low-income rate, the usual measure for indexing low-income trends. The low-income rate is embedded in the SST index, but unlike the index, the rate incorporates only partial information on the distribution of low-income. Consequently, the low-income rate is generally unable to detect the changes we describe and this is true irrespective of the choice of low-income cut-off. Compared to the low-income intensity measure, the rate is also relatively insensitive to changes in transfer payments and employment earnings.

    Release date: 2000-03-30

  • 23. RRSPs in the 1990s Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014885
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This overview examines the use of RRSPs in the 1990s. It looks at participation, contributions, unused room and withdrawals from RSSps savings.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • 24. Earnings of lawyers Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014886
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Earnings of lawyers continue to exceed the overal average. This study presents a profile of lawyers and highlights the changes that have taken place in their demographic characteristics between 1970 and 1995, and in their earnings between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • 25. Update on gambling Archived
    Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014887
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This note updates national and provincial data for most charts and tables published in two previous Perspectives articles on gambling.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014888
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article reveals what types of volunteer organizations attract young people, and considers some factors that may have encouraged growth in youth volunteering, including changes in the labour market.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014889
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Labour Force Survey, this article compares school and work activities, as well as the unemployment and part-time employment rates, of students and non-students. (Adapted from the Autumn 1999 issue of Labour Force.)

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014890
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Workers who are spending longer hours on the job may be putting certain aspects of their health at risk. For some of these people, changing to a substantially longer work week may increase the chances of weight gain, smoking or alcohol consumption. (Adapted from an article in the Autumn 1999 issue of Health Reports.)

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000147
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper revisits trends in the level and distribution of income among Canadian seniors in the context of what is arguably the major source of change in these trends since the end of the seventies, the maturation of Canada's public and private earnings-related pension systems. The expanded role of earnings-related pensions in the 1980s and 1990s is largely the result of changes that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. The Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP) were implemented in 1966 and the first cohort to receive full C/QPP benefits turned 65 in 1976. Cohorts retiring after this period were also the beneficiaries of the expansion of private occupational pensions that took place between the 1950s and the 1970s. The author relies on a detailed decomposition of income by source to show that not only did the maturation of these earnings-related programs produce a substantial increase in average real incomes but also to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly, due mainly to C/QPP benefits. Rising real incomes went disproportionately to lower income seniors contributing to the well-known decline in low-income rates among the elderly.

    Release date: 2000-03-06
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